When the governmental system was created, Christians constituted a majority and controlled the country’s main businesses, but as the Muslims became the majority, they demanded political and economic equality. A civil war broke out in 1975, and each religious group formed a private army or militia to guard its territory.
Dividing Ethnicities in South Asia Newly independent countries were often created to separate two ethnicities. However, two ethnicities can rarely be segregated completely. When the British ended their colonial rule of the Indian subcontinent in 1947, they divided the colony into two irregularly shaped countries: India and Pakistan. The basis for separating West and East Pakistan from India was ethnicity. Antagonism between the two religious groups was so great that the British decided to
Ethnic Division of South Asia The partition of South Asia into two states resulted in massive migration, because the two boundaries did not correspond precisely to the territory inhabited by the two ethnicities. Hindus in Pakistan and Muslims in India were killed attempting to reach the other side of the new border by people from the rival religion. Fig. 7-16: At independence in 1947, British India was divided into India and Pakistan, resulting in the migration of 17 million people and many killings. In 1971, after a brutal civil war, East Pakistan became the country of Bangladesh.
Jammu and Kashmir Fig. 7-17: Although its population is mainly Muslim, much of Jammu and Kashmir became part of India in 1947. India and Pakistan have fought two wars over the territory, and there has been a separatist insurgency in the area.
Sinhalese and Tamils in Sri Lanka Fig. 7-18: The Sinhalese are mainly Buddhist and speak an Indo-European language, while the Tamils are mainly Hindu and speak a Dravidian language.
Images of Ethnic Wars The Reality of Ethnic Wars
Ethnic Cleansing Ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia Creation of multi-ethnic Yugoslavia Destruction of multi-ethnic Yugoslavia Ethnic cleansing in central Africa
Forced Migrations after World War II Fig. 7-19: Territorial changes after World War II resulted in many migrations, especially by Poles, Germans, and Russians.
Ethnic Cleansing in Yugoslavia Ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia is part of a complex pattern of ethnic diversity in the region of southeastern Europe known as the Balkan Peninsula. The Balkans includes Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania, as well as several countries that
The Balkans in 1914 Fig. 7-20: The northern part of the Balkans was part of Austria-Hungary in 1914, while much of the south was part of the Ottoman Empire. The country of Yugoslavia was created after World War I.
Languages in Southeastern Europe Fig. 7-21: Several new states were created, and boundaries were shifted after World Wars I and II. New state boundaries often coincided with language areas.
Ethnic Regions in Yugoslavia Fig. 7-22: Yugoslavia’s six republics until 1992 included much ethnic diversity. Brutal ethnic cleansing occurred in Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo during the civil wars of the 1990s.
Destruction of Multi-Ethnic Yugoslavia Rivalries among ethnicities resurfaced in Yugoslavia during the 1 980s after Tito’s death, leading to the breakup of the country in the early 1990s.
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