Way it drives redesign service oriented initiative to

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way, it drives redesign service-oriented initiative to encourage people to mend their garments and extend their use value thus potentially slow down the replacement cycle. In general, the argument whether reuse and sales of secondhand clothes con- tribute positively toward suf fi ciency is dichotomous. Bocken and Short ( 2016 ) highlight that sales of secondhand goods may incentivize owners to take more care of the products to ensure higher secondhand value; however, Ekvall et al. ( 2014 ) in contrast claim that the displacement effect may be negligible considering that most of the time the secondhand garments donated to charities are not priced or when disposed via take-back schemes are valued by a reward mechanism which may instigate newer purchases. However, some luxury secondhand shops (Affordable Luxury, Beyond Retro) unlike the other resale arrangements run for pro fi t, where individuals can leave their garments for sale, and then split the pro fi t with the 126 R. Pal
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consignment shop. This can increase levels of reuse by making use of the large amounts of clothes which are hanging unused in wardrobes by giving them a value. 3.7 Archetype 7 Repurpose the Business for Society/Environment Social enterprises and social businesses are those which prioritize social and environmental bene fi ts rather than the economic pro fi ts, by incorporating a social pro fi t equation into the business model (Bocken et al. 2014 ; Yunus et al. 2010 ). Social business was de fi ned by Nobel laureate Professor Muhammad Yunus as the new kind of capitalism that serves humanity s most pressing needs (Yunus 2007 ). Between for-pro fi t and nonpro fi t business approaches, social enterprises are driven by the fundamental purpose of delivering social and environmental bene fi ts primarily, however, not overlooking the economic aspect of it. The bene fi ts are mainly in terms of creating self-sustaining business operations by either: (i) focus- ing on businesses dealing with social objectives only, or (ii) by taking up any pro fi table business (so long as it is owned by the poor and the disadvantaged) who can gain through receiving direct dividends or by some indirect bene fi ts (Yunus 2007 ). On the one hand, various charity organizations fundamentally work along the nonpro fi t concept in the secondhand clothing sector by solely committing to col- lection of used clothes from Western countries and arranging donations for humanitarian purposes in under-developed nations and for emergency responses in crises regions. Red Cross, Salvation Army, and Oxfam are the large charity orga- nizations working globally to take part in such activities. However, these organizations are increasingly being noted to run a hybrid business model, whereby two business entities coexist, one operating as a tradi- tional for-pro fi t business, but using part of the pro fi t stream to fi nance a second not-for-pro fi t enterprise (Bocken et al. 2014 ). For instance, in the secondhand clothing sector, Salvation Army has developed its trading arm called Salvation
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