Biotechnology Food resources The challenge of feeding a growing human

Biotechnology food resources the challenge of feeding

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Biotechnology & Food resourcesThe challenge of feeding a growing human populationThe Green RevolutionGenetically modified foodPreserving crop diversityFeedlot agricultureSustainable agricultureAquacultureAlmost 1 billion people don't get enough to eat on a regular basisAlmost 1 billion people are overweight or obese~ 73% of Americans are overweightToo little and too much food are both problematic from a global perspectiveMalnutrition = unbalanced diet (shortage of required nutrients Or excess)Undernourishment = too few calories on a chronic basisOvernourishment = too many calories on an ongoing basis- In Canada, 48% of adults exceed their healthy weight, 14% obese
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Calorie gap between rich and poorDisease of malnutritionmarasmus: severe deficit of energy, protein & carbohydrates (not getting enough to eat)kwashiorkor: protein & micronutrient deficiencydiabetes, heart disease, obesity: excess fats, carbohydrates, caloriesWho is most at risk of hunger?1. rural poor in developing countriesoften have no electricity and no safe drinking waterhealth, education and sanitation services are pooroften directly involved in producing foodmany have no land of their own and work seasonally2. urban poor:no means to produce food: have few resources to buy itVictims of catastrophesfloods, droughts, earthquakes, etc. force people to abandon landWhy can't we feed everyone?Framers today produce more than enough calories to feed everyone- Is it being done sustainably?to increase food security than just increasing agricultural productivity?Food security means:ensuring that all people have physical and economic access to the quantity and quality of food they need to work and function normally from local, non-emergency sourcesWe are producing more food and more food per personHowever, per-capita food production is starting to decline - reflected in pricesglobal grain stockpile: used to be enough to feed the world for several months; now it's a few daysFood security depends on both production and distributionProduction -related issues:- Agricultural input costs are increasing ($$ + environment)- Effectiveness of inputs is decreasing- Environmental costs of outputs such as pollution are increasing- Soils are in declineDistribution-related issues:- Can't get crops off the farm and to the people - Food produced but lost in storageFood security is constrained by the 5 "A's"Availability (production)Adequacy (quality)Accessibility (storage, distribution infrastructure, civil unrest. social status)Affordability ( ability to import, buy, produce, subsidize)
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Acceptability (cultural, religious)The Green Revolutionagriculture post WWIIcheap energy!mechanization (tractors, combines, can work larger fields)large-scale irrigation (can farm marginal land)inorganic fertilizers (by-products of oil industry)knowledge of plant breeding (can breed high-yield, disease resistant crops) The Green Revolutionbetter farming methods to alleviate world hungerstarted in Mexico in 1940's (Dr. Norman Borlaug)
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