Nongenetic risk factors in schizophrenia nongenetic

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Nongenetic Risk Factors in Schizophrenia Nongenetic Risk Factors in Schizophrenia Birth complications (e.g., protracted labors ( fetus has oxygen problem ), forceps deliveries) Maternal malnutrition Seasonality of birth Geographic clusters of 4-6% incidence Maternal exposure to influenza virus Risk greatest at 6 th month of gestation Viral exposure may explain MZ (share more maternal blood supply) / DZ difference Other infectious agents may be involved: Rubella (German measles) Toxoplasmosis spores: greater prevalence of cat ownership among parents of schizophrenics Endogenous retroviruses (e.g., herpes simplex II) Old sperm - odds of schizophrenic child are: About 1 in 200 if father is 25 About 1 in 120 if father is 40 About 1 in 70 if father is 50 Use of street drugs, especially cannabis – risk is enhanced with certain genotypes. Do NOT use marijuana if it has given you a psychotic reaction, or if there is psychosis in your family. Cannabis Use and Later Schizophrenia Cannabis Use and Later Schizophrenia The more you use marijuana, the more chances of psychotic effects The more you use marijuana, the more chances of psychotic effects later in life. later in life.
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Two Cases of Paranoid Schizophrenia Two Cases of Paranoid Schizophrenia Maximal Schizophrenia Risk from Maternal Viral Infection: Maximal Schizophrenia Risk from Maternal Viral Infection: 6th Month Gestational Age 6th Month Gestational Age Prenatal Environment and Two Types of MZ Twins Prenatal Environment and Two Types of MZ Twins Two kinds of MZ twins, the kind that have one placental connection to mom – monochorionic twins the other kind, each is in its own placental connection to mom – dichorionic twins it may be the genetics, it may be the intre...idk placenta is being studied What Is the Damage in Schizophrenia? What Is the Damage in Schizophrenia? Early views (discredited): Metabolic disorder (Kraepelin) – thought it was a metabolic disorder, no evidence Double-binding mother (Freudians) – that mothers drive their kids crazy Structural brain damage (autopsy, CT scans) Cellular derangement – evidence of widespread cellular derangement, they don't line up or connect the way they should. Loss of gray matter with enlarged ventricles (loss is twice as fast with cannabis use) Enlarged ventricles Disordered brain activity (PET & fMRI scans) Frontal lobe Basal ganglia Cerebellum Neurotransmitter disorder-- lots of evidence, we do not know what comes first. Maybe this causes other changes in the brain. Transmethylation theory – around 1940/50. argument that major know hallucinogens are very closely related to our NT's like serotonin. Have not really found evidence. Dopamine hypothesis – certain areas rich in dopamine and serotonin have altered regulations of transmitters Dopamine-serotonin interaction – tend to be the two liveliest in terms of chemical theories about schizophrenia Modern view: schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder Research Classifications of Schizophrenia Research Classifications of Schizophrenia
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(e.g, Timothy Crow, Nancy Andreasen)
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