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Af Am =S. Repubs-->outnumber whites 3 states--> Repubs need white votea)Carpetbaggers-northen transplants to S, many Union soldiers stayed in S after war; want reform “unprogressive” S-->develop material resources-->Yankee institutions: free labor/free public schools; well-educated/middle classb)Ex: Albert Morgan-army veteran from Ohio settle in Mississippi after war,Repub politician, carpetbagger=big role S politicsc)Scalawags-southern whites, small landowning farmers, well-off merchants. planters, supported S Repub Party during Reconstruction; diverse backgrounds & motives, look to Repub party: settle old scores, relief from debt/wartime devastationd)“Confiscation Radicals”-focus on obtaining land for Af Am9
B.Reconstruction the States: A Mixed Record:1.Repubs dominate 10 S constitutional conventions 1867-69-->constitutions: expanded democracy/public role of state/guarantee political&civil Af Am rights/abolished property qualifications for officeholding & jurya)Create 1st state-funded S education system administered by commissioners; mandated orphanages, penitentiaries, insane asylumsb)1868-Repubs in power in S-->1869 new constitutions for confederate states-->crisis of legitimacy limit ability to legislate change; balance reform, gain acceptancec)Repubs: for Af Am rights, against discrimination-->increase Civil Rights Act 1866 in stater constitutions-->wants states be “color-blind”d)Af Am employed in: police, fire depart, juries, school boards, city councils, public gov offices2.Public School system=segregated, accepted b/c Af Am fear jeopardize funding if complained--> Af Am oppose federal legislature requiring segregation in schoolsa)Af Am demand prohibit railroad cars/steam boat/ theatre/public space segregation-->dividing Repub Party-->1870s laws guarantee equal access transportation/public accommodation: difficult enforceb)Repubs try weaken plantation system/promote black ownership-raise taxeson land-->don’t redistribute land to blacksc)Promote factories, large towns, diversifies agriculture-through state; encourage railroad construction; government backing=credibility/raise capital-railroad companies-->states get lien on railroads=security against defaults(1)1868-72: S railroad system rebuilt-increase 40%; impossible attract N & European capital; w/drew resources from education-->corruption/bribery public officials(2)Failures-->public confidence in Repub down; “gospel of prosperity”-failed modernize economy/solidify Repub Party in SC.White Resistance and “Redemption”:1.Dems don’t recognize Repub right participate in S politics-->Repubs control S state govs--> Dems don’t recognize state authoritya)Repubs split w/in state: conciliation to gain white acceptance vs consolidating party under military protection2.Klu Klux Klan-1870-72-terrorist campaign; against Reconstruction gov-->kindof guerilla military force for Dems, planter class, white supremacy supporters10
a)Planters employ Klansmen drive away Af Am from plantations-->deprive of harvest shareb)1870-Laurens Count, SC-KKK drive 150 Af Am from homes-kill 13c)1871-3 Af am arrested-Mississippi-b/c give”incendiary” speeches-at hearing: KKK kill 2 defendants & Repub judge& 30 Af Am killed at riotd)1873-Colfax, LA-100 Af Am killed after failed hold besieged courthouse during contested electione)