Siegle 2011 in addition to a reduced time to market

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(Siegle 2011 ). In addition to a reduced time-to-market, producing a large number of styles of clothing is another distinction of fast fashion retailing. For example, the largest global fast fashion retailer, Zara, produces 12,000 styles selected from 40,000 styles created by 200 in-house designers annually (Siegle 2011 ). Because of the characteristics of fast fashion in providing the newest fashion styles at low prices in quick turnover cycles, fast fashion has created a disposable clothing culture in which consumers throw away clothing after several times of use; such a 46 K.E. Lee
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consumption culture increases waste material amounts to be land fi lled due to a reduced product life cycle (Birtwistle and Moore 2007 ). 5.2.2 Slow Fashion As a consequence of the increasing environmental impacts created by clothing consumption (especially fast fashion), consumers environmental awareness is growing, increasing a niche for slow fashion products that promote ethical clothing consumption (Deirdre and Riach 2011 ). Apparel products manufactured in eco-friendly ways allow consumers to make ethical and consumption choices and create an environmentally conscious identity (Joy et al. 2012 ). In 2008, the term slow fashion was fi rst introduced by a sustainable design consultant Kate Fletcher as an opposing approach to fast fashion (Phelan 2012 ). Slow fashion refers to timeless apparel that lasts a long time and is not affected by rapidly changing fashion trends (Fletcher 2010). Beyond mere adoption of organic materials, slow fashion includes environmentally sustainable fashion usage based on consumers environmental awareness of impacts generated throughout the entire life cycle of textile products (Phelan 2012 ). In environmentally sustainable business approaches, slow fashion companies focus on product durability and reusability when designing their clothing (Fletcher 2010). Hence, slow fashion trends allow consumers to purchase timeless designs that can last a long time and maintain a high product quality and encourage designers to create seasonless sellable products over time (Adamczyk 2014 ; Phelan 2012 ). These new slow fashion products appeal to consumers seeking unique styles with a willingness to pay premiums; hence, slow fashion can reduce the textile industry s carbon footprint through subtle alternative ways without overloading environmental pressures just on textile companies (Adamczyk 2014 ). As a leading example of a slow fashion brand in the textile industry, Eileen Fisher presents timeless and ageless designs by reproducing designated icon styles over seasons while catering to new trends for a broad consumer range (Hill 2014 ). Since 2009, Eileen Fisher has executed a recycling program collecting about 300,000 clothes to be sold at the company s eco-friendly concept stores called Green Eileen stores (Kinosian 2015 ).
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