Social Contract Theory held that all people are free and equal and that they

Social contract theory held that all people are free

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Social Contract Theory – held that all people are free and equal and that they have the right to consent to be governed27)Popular Consent – the concept that government must draw their authority from the governeda)Derived from John Locke’s Social Contract Theory28)Rousseau – 18thcentury Philosopher – was influenced by the American Revolution with his theory of the social contract where the government is given the right to rule society in exchange for protection and equality for all, if they fail, then the contract is breached and the people have the right to replace the rulersa)His writings were powerful in convincing the people of their rights to good government and civil revolutionb)The outcome of the American Revolution was essentially a constitutional contract stating the rights and freedoms of the people to be governed29)Rousseau, John Locke – and Thomas Hobbes – were similar in their ideas of a Social Contract which was the basis of all civilization 30)John Rawls, a Philosopher who utilized hypothetical social contracts to describe the Original Position31)Original Position – humans would be ignorant to ensure impartiality in the creation of moral principlesa)They would not know about themselves (race, social status etc.) b)Description of the veil of ignorance and ensures that moral rules created are fair to all, without bias32)Consequentialism Theory of Ethics – that right or wrong is determined exclusively by the resulting outcomea)What follows an action if good therefore it is “right” to do33)Non-Consequentialism Theory of Ethics – the beneficial or harmful consequences of an action are not considered when determining whether an action is right or wrong34)Deontology – an ethical theory where the ethics of the action does not depend on the consequences, but on the act itselfa)Not enough to just produce the right result but that things must be done in a principled way35)Modern Deontological Theory – most influenced by the Philosopher Kant36)Teleological Ethics - are based on character37)Psychological Egoists – actions are guided by motivations that advance their interest38)Ethical Egoism –also called “Moral Egoism” – the moral standard is that it is always acceptable to do what we believe to be in our own self interest - the promotion of one’s own well being39)Ethnocentrism – where a person judges other cultures against the standard of their owna)My culture is superior, or the “normal” 40)Cultural Relativism – where sociologist try to be objective41)Ethical
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  • Business Ethics, Ethics, Corporate social responsibility, Sherman Antitrust Act, Clayton Antitrust Act

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