DSST Business Ethics and Society 2

Utilitarianism individuals should follow the correct

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Utilitarianism – individuals should follow the correct moral rules based on the test of total well being and where rules conflict, we should revert to Act Utilitarianism 25) Act Utilitarianism – the morally right act and the one that will bring the greatest increase in overall well being 26) John Locke – and Thomas Hobbes – famous for their Social Contract Theory, which was influential in the writing of the Declaration of Independence a) Social Contract Theory – held that all people are free and equal and that they have the right to consent to be governed 27) Popular Consent – the concept that government must draw their authority from the governed a) Derived from John Locke’s Social Contract Theory 28) Rousseau – 18 th century Philosopher – was influenced by the American Revolution with his theory of the social contract where the government is given the right to rule society in exchange for protection and equality for all, if they fail, then the contract is breached and the people have the right to replace the rulers a) His writings were powerful in convincing the people of their rights to good government and civil revolution b) The outcome of the American Revolution was essentially a constitutional contract stating the rights and freedoms of the people to be governed 29) Rousseau, John Locke – and Thomas Hobbes – were similar in their ideas of a Social Contract which was the basis of all civilization 30) John Rawls, a Philosopher who utilized hypothetical social contracts to describe the Original Position 31) Original Position – humans would be ignorant to ensure impartiality in the creation of moral principles a) They would not know about themselves (race, social status etc.) b) Description of the veil of ignorance and ensures that moral rules created are fair to all, without bias 32) Consequentialism Theory of Ethics – that right or wrong is determined exclusively by the resulting outcome a) What follows an action if good therefore it is “right” to do 33) Non-Consequentialism Theory of Ethics – the beneficial or harmful consequences of an action are not considered when determining whether an action is right or wrong 34) Deontology – an ethical theory where the ethics of the action does not depend on the consequences, but on the act itself a) Not enough to just produce the right result but that things must be done in a principled way 35) Modern Deontological Theory – most influenced by the Philosopher Kant a) Kant believed the most important feature of any field (math, ethics, physics etc. ) is consistency because human beings reject contradictions b) Based on obligations 36) Teleological Ethics - are based on character a) Teleological theories can take several forms including utilitarianism’s a.i) “the greatest good for the greatest number” 37) Psychological Egoists – actions are guided by motivations that advance their interest 38) Ethical Egoism –also called “Moral Egoism” – the moral standard is that it is always acceptable to do what we believe to be in our own self interest - the promotion of one’s own well being
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Utilitarianism individuals should follow the correct moral...

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