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Hypertonic increase the solute concentration in the intravascular space. The intravascular space will become more concentrated and will experience an increased osmolality. leaves the extracellular space more concentrated (higher concentration of solutes), and water will then move from the intracellular space to the extracellular space, which will cause the cell to shrinkDiffusion c.Evaluate the purpose, function and role of hydrostatic and oncotic pressure and describe the mechanisms by which they are altered. Purpose/Function/Role Mechanisms by Which They are Altered Hydrostatic PressureOncotic Pressure 3.Analyze the effects of aging on body fluid distribution. Acid Base Balance 2.Analyze how the body maintains optimal pH balance. a.Explain the role of the components of the chemical buffer system in acid base balance. BicarbonatePhosphatesPlasma ProteinsHemoglobinb.Describe the normal pH balance, the source and type of metabolic acids. Normal pHMetabolic AcidsoCarbonic AcidoLactic Acid
oSulfuric AcidoPhosphoric AcidoKetone Bodies c.Analyze the formula which represents acid base balance. d.Explain the three roles of the kidney in the maintenance of acid base imbalance. Role of KidneyDefinition Clinical ImplicationsReabsorption of Bicarbonate Renal Excretion of HydrogenExcretion of Hydrogen as Ammonium Acid Base Disorders 6.Differentiate between the etiology, clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of acid base disorders. a.Analyze the pathological consequences of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis,respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. b.Differentiate between the etiology and clinical manifestations of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. DisorderEtiologyClinical Manifestations PathophysiologyClinical Implications Metabolic AcidosisMetabolic AlkalosisRespiratory AcidosisRespiratory Alkalosis