Soil profile 76 layers and associated major processes

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Soil profile (7.6) – layers and associated major processes 1. O Horizon: Organic (litter layer) 2. A Horizon: Topsoil 3. E Horizon: Eluviated (leaching layer) 4. B Horizon: Subsoil 5. C Horizon: Weathered parent material 6. R Horizon: Rock (parent material)
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Humus – what is it? Where do you see it in the soil profile? o Humus id the partial decomposition of organic matter, found on) Horizon and mixed into the topsoil. Soil erosion and conservation methods o Humans are primary cause of soil erosion, waterlogging, loss of nutrients, chemical pollution, salinization, lack of water, desertification o Land farmed under conservation methods reduces this Crop rotation Contour farming Terracing Intercropping Shelterbelts No-till farming Impacts of over-irrigation and over-fertilization o Depletes fresh-water supplies in aquifers/rivers/lakes o Causes water table on farm land to rise drowning plant roots and preventing them access to gasses Organic farm – what is it? Pros and cons o A farm that doesn’t use, pesticides, synthetic fertilizers o Is 20% less productive, costs more to operate and takes more time o Less harmful to biodiversity. Increased soil quality, more sustainable agricultural production
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Energy (Withgott chapter 15 & 16) Renewable vs. nonrenewable energy and examples o Coal, gas, oil, nuclear o Wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric World energy production and electricity generation profiles World Energy Production World electricity generation Oil 33.2% 5.5% Coal 27% 41% Natural Gas 21.1% 21.3% Hydro 2.2% 15.9% Nuclear 5.8% 13.5% Biomass 10% 2.8% total New Renewables 0.7% Consumption of renewable energy sources Electricity generated from renewable sources Wind 11.5% 22.5% Hydropower 31.2% 60.1% Biomass 53.4% 13.4% Solar 1.4% 0.3% Geothermal 2.6% 3.7% U.S. renewable energy profile (Figure 16.2)
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Know solar power makes several types of energy possible o Solar power could be used to produce hydrogen o Passive solar energy in building materials to absorb heat and save on energy needed to warm buildings or cool them (thermal mass) o Solar panels heat tubes of water, air, anti-freeze which transfer heat into a building o Magnify or focus sunlight using mirrors to a single high
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