[Group 11] Japan's overcoming severe pollution in the period of 1950s-1970s and experiences for V

And water pollution control law to pollution session

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and Water Pollution Control Law to Pollution session of the Diet in December 1970 and established the Environment Agency in 1971. Thanks to this law and technological developments, the quality of water has been improving since then. Besides, we could not deny many actions of Japan to overcome pollution. For instance, they tried to develop the pollution control system more by making an increase in the number of officials in charge of pollution control from 300 persons in 11
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1961 to 12,317 persons in 1975 or making an increase of pollution control related budget at national level for about 5 times between 1970 and 1975. Furthermore, it is obvious that Private Sector made some considerable efforts such as: The spread of pollution control manager system: They increased the number of pollution control organizations from 5% in 1965 to 40% in 1970 and established “Law concerning the Improvement of Pollution Prevention Systems in Specific Factories” in 1971. - The agreement on environmental pollution control. There was a very dramatic increase in the number of agreement on pollution control from 14 to 8923 between 1965 and 1975. - The agreement between private sector and local governments/citizen’s group. These agreements had some functions like: 1) Supplementary pollution control measure 2) Implementation of pollution control with close attention to local conditions 3) Promotion of future pollution control measures and development of pollution prevention technologies 4) Prevention of protests against location of factories by getting agreement from local residents - The increase in the investment to pollution control. The amount of money invested to pollution control by the government sharply rose to more than 900 billions yen in 1975 and then going down to approximately 300 billions yen in 1980. Efforts in overcoming pollution Conflict between prevention of pollution and economic growth When promoting anti-pollution measures, it is vital to solve the burden of costs required for mitigating/preventing pollution. Normally, such costs should be cover by the companies that caused contaminants. However, the cost of against-pollution facilities did not directly contribute to production and would also become a pressure 12
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to industries. Therefore, anti-pollution measures were believed as a factor restricting industrial development in Japan where small and medium-scale enterprises accounted for the majority of all enterprises. As a result, the Japan Pollution Control Corporation was established in 1965 as an agency specializing in aiding the cost for prevention of pollution. The cost for hiring employees, the technology, issuing Law is definitely not a relative number and represents a huge opportunity loss for Japan at its prime time of developing. However, let’s take a look back and questions, if these tough measures were not taken, what would Japan look like at present? Could there be clean streets, stable economy, clean healthy environment and population with highest age rate in the world? No. And what is the cost for today if these things had not been stopped in the
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