In The Game of Life Shulman Bowen 2001 and Reclaiming the Game Bowen Levin 2003

In the game of life shulman bowen 2001 and reclaiming

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student-athletes. In The Game of Life (Shulman & Bowen, 2001) and Reclaiming the Game (Bowen & Levin, 2003), the authors noted that, for institutions in the two conferences studied, the recruited student- athletes’ ACT scores were significantly lower than the scores for non - athlete counterparts; additionally, student-athletes were up to four times more likely to get into their chosen schools than non-athletes. The authors also found that these student-athletes earned lower grades in college than their classmates who had similar entrance-exam scores and that students in high-profile sports performed worse than students in low-profile sports. Therefore, it is important to continue exploring the non-cognitive factors that are related to the student- athletes’ desires, attitudes, and behaviors which may better predict persistence and degree completion for this unique subset of the population. Demographic Factors and Student-Athlete Persistence Studying the relationship between athletic participation and academic achievement for college freshmen, Pascarella, Bohr, Nora, and Terenzini (1995) found that intercollegiate-athletic participation had a significant, adverse effect on general cognitive development for both male and female student-athletes during their first year of college, although the effect was less for women. The authors also noted that student- athletes playing football and men’s basketball experienced declines for their math and reading scores while student-athletes competing in various other sports experienced gains. These results were consistent with an earlier study conducted by Eitzen (1988) who reported that athletes in the men’s revenue -generating sports of
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40 football and basketball did not perform as well as other athletes when it came to grades and graduation rates. Harper, Williams, and Blackman (2013) reported that 96.1% of the 76 institutional members of the country’s 6 largest NCAA Division I athletic conferences graduated Black, male student-athletes at rates lower than other student-athletes. Across the 4 years studied (2007- 2011), only 50.2% of Black, male student-athletes graduated within 6 years, compared to 66.9% of student-athletes overall. Pascarella et al. (2004) found that first-generation college students who played varsity sports were at a greater disadvantage than their peers whose parents had attended college. After studying NCAA Division I student-athletes at four year colleges, Sellers (1992) found that family SES was associated with academic success; student-athletes from higher SES families were more likely to experience academic success than those student-athletes from lower SES families. Numerous other sources, such as Horn et al. (2001) and Hrabowski (2002), later concluded that Black student- athletes in football and men’s basketball come from families with lower SES backgrounds, and are not as academically prepared for college as their White teammates. Finally, in his study of academic and athletic motivation, and balance of student- athletes at a successful NCAA Division I program, Althouse (2007) found that the parents’ level of education was a significant predictor of Balance Score (p<.05).
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