Maintainimprove arterial blood flow to the lower extremities Protect tissues

Maintainimprove arterial blood flow to the lower

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Maintain/improve arterial blood flow to the lower extremities. Protect tissues from further injury due to pressure and constriction of blood flow. Prevent wound infection. Keep wounds clean, they’ll heal slowly! Debridement (removing the dead tissue) if they get infected
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Planning: Nursing Interventions Warm environment Avoiding restrictive clothing Smoking cessation Exercise Elevate legs for PAD or not??? NOT
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Figure 18-6 Raynaud’s Disease Spasm of the arteries of upper and lower extremities Unknown cause From cold & stress Do not apply heat Taking things out of the oven Avoid Caffeine and smoking Most common in young women
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Aneurysm Outpouching of the wall of the artery d/t a structural defect caused by plaque, genetics, or hypertension Usually asymptomatic Diagnosis: Chest or abdominal x-ray, ultrasound, MRI, or CT Surgical repair if able Nurse management Monitor urine q 30min x2hrs then q 1hr x 2days Should be 30mL/hour Notify a physician
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Carotid Artery Disease S/S Carotid bruit, confusion, weakness/paralysis visual abnormality in one eye, stroke-like symptoms Carotid endarterectomy – is the treatment Must be a 70% occlusion or greater for surgery Risk for stroke (CVA) following this is extremely high Assess for disorientation, impaired speech/swallowing, facial asymmetry, aphasia
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Thrombosis Formation, development, or presence of a “clump” of blood (usually platelets and fibrin) that from a clot in a blood vessel Risk factors Venous stasis: Immobility, heart failure Damage to inner lining of the vein: trauma, HTN Hypercoagulability of blood: vessel inflammation Smoking, hormone replacement, contraceptives Effects of thrombosis depend on: Location and size of the thrombus Complete or only partial occlusion Collateral circulation
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Thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a superficial vein D/t infection from an IV line, or contaminated IV drug needles Can cause clots S/S Swelling, redness, warmth, tenderness/pain upon touch Use warm pack Treatment Stop source of inflammation, warm, moist, heat, elevate, NSAIDS and antibiotics if infected
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Deep Venous Thrombosis Clot in deep vein (DVT) Diagnosed by ultrasound (Doppler flow study) Coagulation labs and D-Dimer lab will be drawn DETERMINE BLOOD CLOTS Contributing factors: Immobility, trauma, sepsis, clotting problems, surgical procedures, dehydration, or any condition that causes slowing of venous flow can cause a clot to form May lead to an embolus that can lodge in lungs leading to sudden onset resp. distress
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DVT cont Classic sign – one extremity edema, warm Homan’s sign?
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