Exam One Study Guide - Microbio.docx

21 what are the central pathways to metabolism what

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21. What are the central pathways to metabolism? What molecule is at the top of this pathway? How other molecules may enter the pathway? What are the differences between anabolism and catabolism? Central pathways to metabolism: glycolysis + Krebs cycle o Glucose is at the top Catabolic pathways: break down macromolecules into simple component parts. Releases energy. Anabolic pathway: build up macromolecules by combining simpler molecules. Uses energy. 22. Where in the cell components of Electron transport system are located. What is their function? Location of the Electron Transport Chain: o Bacteria: in the cell membrane o Human cells: in the inner membrane of the mitochondria Function: to accept the electron from NADH and transfer it to Oxygen. 23. What are the six major bio elements? Where in cell (polymers) you find these elements? Six major bio elements: o Carbon: lipids, carbs, proteins, nucleic acids o Hydrogen: lipids, carbs, proteins, nucleic acids o Oxygen: carbs, proteins, nucleic acids o Nitrogen: proteins, nucleic acids o Phosphorus: nucleic acid o Sulfur: proteins Lipids: CH Carbohydrates: CHO Proteins: CHONS Nucleic Acids: CHONP 24. What features of lipids make them an excellent molecule to make cell membrane with? What most hormones are made of Lipids are nonpolar and semipermeable Most hormones are made of proteins 25. Describe different variation oxygen requirements. How come some organisms do not need oxygen? What do they use instead? Why some are obligate anaerobes? Obligate aerobes: require oxygen to survive.
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Facultative anaerobes: grow best where there is oxygen present, but can grow without it. Their efficiency in producing oxygen decreased when oxygen is not present. Obligate anaerobes: do not use oxygen to grow. Does not continue in the presence of oxygen. Aerotolerant anaerobes: do not use oxygen to grow. Can continue to grow in the presence of oxygen. Microaerophiles: require oxygen to grow, but in low concentration. Some organisms do not need oxygen because they cannot use it. They use anaerobic respiration to obtain energy. Some are obligate anaerobes because they lack the enzyme needed to neutralize harmful forms of oxygen. These will cease to grow if oxygen is present. 26. Compare defined vs. undefined (complex) culture media, selective vs. differential media. Defined media: the exact chemical composition is known. o Used in lab experimental work or growth of autotrophic bacteria. Undefined (complex) media: exact chemical composition is unknown. Varies from batch to batch. Usually made up of nutrients extracted from things such as yeasts, meat, and plants. o Used to grow heterotrophic bacteria and fungi Selective media: designed to suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria and encourage the growth of desired microbes. Differential media: make it easier to distinguish the desired colonies from others growing on the same plate.
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