The split in the Democratic Party greatlyimproved Republican prospects, which was whatsome of the more radical Southern delegates hadintended all along. They hoped that a Republican vic-tory would be the final straw that would convincethe Southern states to secede.Other people, including many former Whigs,were greatly alarmed at the danger to the Union.They created another new party, the ConstitutionalUnion Party, and chose former Tennessee senatorJohn Bell as their candidate. The ConstitutionalUnionists campaigned on a position of upholdingboth the Constitution and the Union.TURNING POINTLincoln Is ElectedWith no possibility of winningelectoral votes in the South, the Republicans neededa candidate who could sweep the North. Delegates atthe Republicans’ Chicago convention did not thinktheir first choice, William Seward, had a wide enoughappeal. Instead they nominated Lincoln, whosedebates with Douglas had made him very popular inthe North.During the campaign, the Republicans tried to per-suade voters they were more than just an antislaveryparty. They denounced John Brown’s raid and reaf-firmed the right of the Southern states to preserveCHAPTER 10Sectional Conflict Intensifies341The Election of 18601.Interpreting MapsHow does the map show thatLincoln was a sectional candidate?2.Applying Geography SkillsWhat explains the fact thatStephen Douglas won only one state, Missouri?434464945117931212136231081015273585513464338CALIF.OREG.NonvotingTerritoriesMO.MINN.WIS.ILL.ARK.TEX.LA.IND.MICH.KY.TENN.OHIOVA.N.C.S.C.MISS.ALA.GA.FLA.IOWAPA.N.Y.VT.N.H.ME.MASS.R.I.CONN.N.J.MD.DEL.LincolnRepublicanCandidatePoliticalPartyDouglasNorthern DemocratBreckinridgeSouthern DemocratBell180ElectoralVote1272391,865,593PopularVote1,382,713848,356592,906Constitutional UnionPresidential Election, 1860
slavery within their borders. They also supportedhigher tariffs, a new homestead law for western set-tlers, and a transcontinental railroad.The Republican proposals greatly angered manySoutherners. Nevertheless, with Democratic votessplit between Douglas and Breckinridge, Lincolnwon the election without Southern support. For theSouth, the election of a Republican president repre-sented the victory of the abolitionists. The survivalof Southern society and culture seemed to be atstake. For many, there was now no choice but tosecede.SecessionThe dissolution of the Union beganwith South Carolina, where anti-Northern seces-sionist sentiment had long been intense. Shortlyafter Lincoln’s election, the state legislature calledfor a convention. Amid a frenzy of fireworks anddrills, the convention unanimously voted for theOrdinance of Secession. By February 1, 1861, sixmore states in the Lower South—Mississippi,Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—had voted to secede. Many Southerners felt secession was in the Revolutionary tradition andthat they were fighting for American rights.