The split in the democratic party greatly improved

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The split in the Democratic Party greatly improved Republican prospects, which was what some of the more radical Southern delegates had intended all along. They hoped that a Republican vic- tory would be the final straw that would convince the Southern states to secede. Other people, including many former Whigs, were greatly alarmed at the danger to the Union. They created another new party, the Constitutional Union Party, and chose former Tennessee senator John Bell as their candidate. The Constitutional Unionists campaigned on a position of upholding both the Constitution and the Union. TURNING POINT Lincoln Is Elected With no possibility of winning electoral votes in the South, the Republicans needed a candidate who could sweep the North. Delegates at the Republicans’ Chicago convention did not think their first choice, William Seward, had a wide enough appeal. Instead they nominated Lincoln, whose debates with Douglas had made him very popular in the North. During the campaign, the Republicans tried to per- suade voters they were more than just an antislavery party. They denounced John Brown’s raid and reaf- firmed the right of the Southern states to preserve CHAPTER 10 Sectional Conflict Intensifies 341 The Election of 1860 1. Interpreting Maps How does the map show that Lincoln was a sectional candidate? 2. Applying Geography Skills What explains the fact that Stephen Douglas won only one state, Missouri? 4 3 4 4 6 4 9 4 5 11 7 9 3 12 12 13 6 23 10 8 10 15 27 35 8 5 5 13 4 6 4 3 3 8 CALIF. OREG. Nonvoting Territories MO. MINN. WIS. ILL. ARK. TEX. LA. IND. MICH. KY. TENN. OHIO VA. N.C. S.C. MISS. ALA. GA. FLA. IOWA PA. N.Y. VT. N.H. ME. MASS. R.I. CONN. N.J. MD. DEL. Lincoln Republican Candidate Political Party Douglas Northern Democrat Breckinridge Southern Democrat Bell 180 Electoral Vote 12 72 39 1,865,593 Popular Vote 1,382,713 848,356 592,906 Constitutional Union Presidential Election, 1860
slavery within their borders. They also supported higher tariffs, a new homestead law for western set- tlers, and a transcontinental railroad. The Republican proposals greatly angered many Southerners. Nevertheless, with Democratic votes split between Douglas and Breckinridge, Lincoln won the election without Southern support. For the South, the election of a Republican president repre- sented the victory of the abolitionists. The survival of Southern society and culture seemed to be at stake. For many, there was now no choice but to secede. Secession The dissolution of the Union began with South Carolina, where anti-Northern seces- sionist sentiment had long been intense. Shortly after Lincoln’s election, the state legislature called for a convention. Amid a frenzy of fireworks and drills, the convention unanimously voted for the Ordinance of Secession. By February 1, 1861, six more states in the Lower South—Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas— had voted to secede. Many Southerners felt secession was in the Revolutionary tradition and that they were fighting for American rights.

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