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onscientiousnessoOrganized vs disorganizedoCareful vs carelessoDisciplined vs impulsiveoFrom discipline and organization to lack of seriousnessExtraversionoSociable vs retiringoFun-loving vs soberoAffectionate vs reservedoFrom sociability and outgoingness to introversionAgreeablenessoSoft-hearted vs ruthlessoTrusting vs suspiciousoHelpful vs uncooperativeoFrom compliance and cooperativeness to suspiciousnessNeuroticism(emotional stability):oCalm vs anxiousoSecure vs insecure18
oSelf-satisfied vs self-pityingoFrom emotional stability to emotional instabilityHow does infant temperament relate to adult trait?Behavioral styleGenetically determined biologically based response tendenciesoReactiveocalmPersonality stabilityChess & Thomas’s 3 temperaments: easy, difficult, slow to warm upEasy:o40%oPositive mood, regular routines, easily adapts to new experiencesDifficult:o10%oReacts negatively, cries frequently, irregular routine, slow to accept new experiencesSlow-to-warm-up:o15%oInactive, slow to adapt to new experiences but do eventually warm up, lowintensity of moodBuss and Ploman’s 3 domains (emotionality, activity, sociability- remember: Emily Acts Social)Emotionality:oTendency to be distressedoSame as ‘easy’ or ‘difficult’oSympathetic arousaloTwo forms of distressFearful: try to escapeAngry: protestActivity:oTempo and vigor of movementoHigh: walk fast, jumps and bounces a lot, like high energy gamesoLow: placidSociability:oTendency to prefer the company of others to being aloneoHigh:extraversionoLow:introversionBe able to describeKagan’s behavioral inhibition. Behavioral inhibitionoHigh emotionality and low sociabilityoShy, restrained or distressed with unfamiliar situations or new people (automatically aroused)19
o4 months- wriggle and freto21 months- long to warm up, retreat and fretoCorrelated to temperament at 5 ½ , 7 ½ , and 13 but only about 50% in adolescenceKnow evidences of personality CHANGE– Thestage theories. (Freud, Erickson)Freud:oPsychoanalyticStagesErickson:oPsychosocialStagesBig 5 (OCEAN):oPsychometric/traitStableBandura:oSocial-learningSituationalKnow Freud’s stagesID:oUnconsciousoBasic drives to survive, reproduce, aggressoOperates on the pleasure principle (immediate gratification)oMe, me, me!oAt birth, all psychic energy is on the IDoUses immediate gratification and primary process day dreamingEGO:oExecutive and consciousoA mediator between the ID and SUPER EGO and realityoOperates on the reality principleoMaximizes long term consequences to gain pleasureoCan delay gratification and use secondary processfigure out what you need to do to achieve goalSUPER EGO:oThe idealoOperates on the perfection principleoHow we ought to behave, out conscienceoInternalized standardsoPride (+) of guilt (-)Know the ‘important’ Erikson’s stagesTrust vs. mistrust:oNeeds metAttachment formedLearns about the world20
Learns about themselvesoAge:infants- 0-1 yearsoVirtue:HopeIdentity vs. role confusion: