onscientiousness o Organized vs disorganized o Careful vs careless o

Onscientiousness o organized vs disorganized o

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onscientiousness o Organized vs disorganized o Careful vs careless o Disciplined vs impulsive o From discipline and organization to lack of seriousness E xtraversion o Sociable vs retiring o Fun-loving vs sober o Affectionate vs reserved o From sociability and outgoingness to introversion A greeableness o Soft-hearted vs ruthless o Trusting vs suspicious o Helpful vs uncooperative o From compliance and cooperativeness to suspiciousness N euroticism (emotional stability): o Calm vs anxious o Secure vs insecure 18
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o Self-satisfied vs self-pitying o From emotional stability to emotional instability How does infant temperament relate to adult trait? Behavioral style Genetically determined biologically based response tendencies o Reactive o calm Personality stability Chess & Thomas’s 3 temperaments: easy, difficult, slow to warm up Easy : o 40% o Positive mood, regular routines, easily adapts to new experiences Difficult: o 10% o Reacts negatively, cries frequently, irregular routine, slow to accept new experiences Slow-to-warm-up : o 15% o Inactive, slow to adapt to new experiences but do eventually warm up, low intensity of mood Buss and Ploman’s 3 domains (emotionality, activity, sociability- remember : Emily Acts Social) Emotionality: o Tendency to be distressed o Same as ‘easy’ or ‘difficult’ o Sympathetic arousal o Two forms of distress Fearful: try to escape Angry: protest Activity: o Tempo and vigor of movement o High : walk fast, jumps and bounces a lot, like high energy games o Low : placid Sociability: o Tendency to prefer the company of others to being alone o High: extraversion o Low: introversion Be able to describe Kagan’s behavioral inhibition. Behavioral inhibition o High emotionality and low sociability o Shy, restrained or distressed with unfamiliar situations or new people (automatically aroused) 19
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o 4 months- wriggle and fret o 21 months- long to warm up, retreat and fret o Correlated to temperament at 5 ½ , 7 ½ , and 13 but only about 50% in adolescence Know evidences of personality CHANGE The stage theories. (Freud, Erickson) Freud : o Psychoanalytic Stages Erickson: o Psychosocial Stages Big 5 (OCEAN): o Psychometric/trait Stable Bandura: o Social-learning Situational Know Freud’s stages ID: o Unconscious o Basic drives to survive, reproduce, aggress o Operates on the pleasure principle (immediate gratification) o Me, me, me! o At birth, all psychic energy is on the ID o Uses immediate gratification and primary process day dreaming EGO: o Executive and conscious o A mediator between the ID and SUPER EGO and reality o Operates on the reality principle o Maximizes long term consequences to gain pleasure o Can delay gratification and use secondary process figure out what you need to do to achieve goal SUPER EGO: o The ideal o Operates on the perfection principle o How we ought to behave, out conscience o Internalized standards o Pride (+) of guilt (-) Know the ‘important’ Erikson’s stages Trust vs. mistrust: o Needs met Attachment formed Learns about the world 20
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Learns about themselves o Age: infants- 0-1 years o Virtue: Hope Identity vs. role confusion:
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