Ern culture some have said her attitude toward race

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Chapter 4 / Exercise 165
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ern culture, some have said her attitude toward race was the product of “an imperfectly developed sensibility” and that “large social issues as such were never the subject of her writing.” But that criticism ignores . . . Here is the conclusion: Thus we see that those who claim that O’Connor ignored racism fail to see that she understood racism as a deeper crisis of faith,
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Chapter 4 / Exercise 165
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240 q u i c k t i p : o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g w o r d s as a failure to recognize the healing knowledge of suffering, in- sights that put her among a few southern writers who saw the modern world as spiritually bankrupt. Seen in this light, a reread- ing of her private correspondence might reveal . . . As she said in one letter (May 4, 1955), “What I had in mind to suggest [was] . . . the redemptive quality of the Negro’s suffering for us all. . . . I meant [a character in the story to suggest] in an almost physical way . . . the mystery of existence.” conclusion This echoing device may seem a bit literary, but it is not at all uncommon.
c h a p t e r f i f t e e n Communicating Evidence Visually This chapter focuses on the issues involved in presenting quantitative data in tables, charts, and graphs clearly, usefully, and fairly. As we’ve said in many ways, readers assess a claim by the strength of the argument supporting it, particularly the soundness of its logic and the quality of its evidence. Since readers rightly insist on evidence, particularly new evidence, you have to be sure that they understand yours easily and see its relevance to the claim you in- tend it to support. That is especially so when the evidence consists of complex quantitative data whose impact can be strengthened or weakened by how you present them. So if you have based your report on lots of complex data, particularly quantitative data, you should now focus on how clearly you have presented them and revise those tables and figures that do not clearly and persuasively connect your reports of evidence to your claims. Some reports of quantitative data are just as clear verbally as visually: In 1996, on average, men earned $32,144 a year, women $23,710, a difference of $8,434. TABLE 15.1 Male and Female Salaries, 1996 Men $32,144 Women $23,710 Difference $ 8,434 But when the numbers are more complex, readers need a more systematic presentation, first simply to absorb them, then to ana- lyze and understand them. For example, here is a paragraph of data too complex to remember easily. 241
242 p r e p a r i n g t o d r a f t , d r a f t i n g , a n d r e v i s i n g In 1970 almost nine out of ten families had two parents—85 per- cent. But in 1980 that number declined to 77 percent, then to 73 percent in 1990, and to 68 percent in 2000. The number of one-parent families rose, particularly families headed by just a mother. In 1970 just 11 percent of families were headed by a sin- gle mother. In 1980 that number rose to 18 percent, in 1990 to 22 percent, and to 23 percent in 2000. Single fathers headed just 1 percent of the families in 1970, 2 percent in 1980, 3 percent in 1990, and 4 percent in 2000. Families with no

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