High blood pressure is a result/symptom of a malfunction of some system responsible for causing hypertension o As opposed to being the root/cause of hypertension Researchers are unable to distinguish causes of hypertension in individual people Necessary for developing personalized and effective approaches to clinical management Renewed effort at refining clinical phenotypes = CRUCIAL to advance the field There’s steady progress in unraveling the genetics of hypertension Organization of the Nervous System: (Divided into Central and Peripheral Nervous System) o A signal/stimulus reaches the sensory receptors Sensory receptors stimulate sensory (afferent) neurons that go to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (Brain + Spinal Cord) After being processed there, motor (efferent) neurons leave the CNS and affect the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM o PNS is divided into Somatic (voluntary) N.S., Autonomic (involuntary) N.S., and Enteric (digestive tract) N.S. ANS is further subdivided into Sympathetic (“fight-or- flight”) N.S. and Parasympathetic (“rest & digest” or “feed & breed”) N.S. ANS neurons control cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, exocrine glands/cells, some endocrine glands/cells, and some adipose tissue ANS neurons communicates w/ neurons of ENS o ENS neurons control cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, exocrine glands/cells, some endocrine glands/cells, and some adipose tissue o ENS neurons stimulate sensory (afferent) neurons after receiving a signal/stimulus
Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, exocrine glands/cells, some endocrine glands/cells, and some adipose tissue manipulation leads to tissue responses SoNS neurons control Skeletal Muscles, which leads directly to tissue responses Tissue responses provides feedback to sensory receptors Overview: Vertebrate Nervous System o Sensory Input and Motor Output are part of the PNS o Integration by the Brain and Spinal Cord are part of the CNS 3 Major Classes of Neurons o Sensory neurons Convey info about the external & internal environ. from sensory receptors to CNS Most synapse w/ interneurons o Interneurons Integrate sensory input and motor input Located w/in CNS Synapse ONLY w/ OTHER neurons o Motor neurons Convey impulses from CNS to Effector cells Nervous System General Fxn o Sensory detection receptors Energy Transduction (mechanical, light, sound, chemical, thermal and others) Neural Signal (Action Potential)
Diagram o See attached picture 3 Overlap Fxns of Nervous System: o Sensory Input Conduction of signals from sensory receptors integration centers of nervous system o Integration Process by which info from sensory receptors is interpreted & associated w/ appropriate responses of the body o Motor Output Conduction of signals from the integration/processing center effector cells (muscle & gland cells) that actually carry out the body’s response to stimuli Peripheral Nervous System o Cranial nerves and spinal nerves Extensions of Central Nervous System o Communication lines b/w CNS and rest of the body
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- Fall '14
- Endocrine System, endocrine glands, Anterior pituitary