It certainly cannot be considered a peripheral part

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syntactic, and morphological properties, and its members appear with high frequency. It certainly cannot be considered a peripheral part of the lexicon. Yet the set is split right down the middle between forms of Spanish and of Philippine derivation. We all know, of course, that ‘languages don’t mix’, but this must be the one of the closes existing approximations to that impossible state. The third question, then, is: (3) ‘Is this a random mixture or is it interpretable according to some kind of pattern? If so, is this pattern one that corresponds to traditional theories of lexical influence of one language upon another? Such questions are not so easily raised with other creole languages. The prominence and clear identifiability of the Philippine element, not only in Zm lexicon but also in syntax, morphology, and phonology, contrast sharply with the situation of Caribbean creoles where the nature and extent of African substratum influence, if any, is a subject of considerable controversy. Actually there are two aspects to this question. One concerns the distributions of Philippine forms across semantic domains, across the topics of speech if you will. The other concerns the distribution of Philippine forms across speech events, the selection of expressions at a level of formality appropriate to the situation. In pronouns the latter consideration is relevant to the selection of second person forms, members also of the domain of terms of address (see Table 2). (note the discrepancy in respect usage between the singular and plural pronouns and the participation of a single Philippine form in the latter set. Finally, note the semantic structure of the domain of pronouns in Zm. The differentiation between the inclusive and exclusive first person plural and the lack of sex or gender disctinctions in the third person correspond to Philippine rather than Spanish pronominal semantics. On the other hand, the differentiation of second person pronouns by the degree of respect they accord the addressee is more complex than that of any Philippine language I know of, and it does not quite correspond to Spanish usage. Comparisons of the semantic structure of given domains in Zm with corresponding domains in Spanish and in the relevant Philippine languages provide a nice test case of language culture interrelations. Speakers of Zm shares a basically common culture with other Christian Filipino groups and with them belong to the same larger socio-political system. Yet unlike other Christian Filipinos, they do not speak on of a closely related group of Austronesian languages. To the extent that the semantic structure of a language mirrors culture, one would
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  • Fall '19
  • Chavacano language, Zm, Philippine Creole Spanish

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