Do Golden rules apply in the following circuits x 2 x sq 1V CK Tse Operational

Do golden rules apply in the following circuits x 2 x

This preview shows page 6 - 14 out of 23 pages.

+ Do Golden rules apply in the following circuits? + + + + + x 2 x sq. –1V
Image of page 6
C.K. Tse: Operational Amplifiers 7 Other examples (where Golden rules work) R 1 R 2 + v i v o Applying the Golden rules, we get This is the non-inverting amplifier . + v i Here, simply This is the voltage follower .
Image of page 7
C.K. Tse: Operational Amplifiers 8 Other examples (where Golden rules work) More examples R 2 R f + v 2 v o This is the summing amplifier . + v 2 This is the difference amplifier . R 1 R 3 v 1 v 3 R 1 R 1 v 1 R 2 R 2
Image of page 8
C.K. Tse: Operational Amplifiers 9 Other examples (where Golden rules work) More examples R + v i v o This is the integrator. + This is the differentiator (theoretically). In practice, this circuit won’t work!!! v i R C C
Image of page 9
C.K. Tse: Operational Amplifiers 10 Examples (where Golden rules do not work) Comparator Since the voltage gain typically exceeds 100,000, the inputs must be within a fraction of a millivolt in order to prevent the output from swinging all the way to extreme positive or negative. It is assumed that the supply voltages are +10 V and –10 V and that the gain is 100,000. 1. If v 1 is larger than v 2 by more than 0.0001 V, the output will swing to +10 V. 2. If v 2 is larger than v 1 by more than 0.0001 V, the output will swing to –10 V. The output cannot make the two inputs equal!!! Golden Rule 1 fails!!!
Image of page 10
C.K. Tse: Operational Amplifiers 11 Examples (where Golden rules do not work) Comparator But this simple comparator suffers from a problem if the input signals have noise! The output may switch (jump up and down) when the signals are close to each other. The output cannot make the two inputs equal!!! Golden Rule 1 fails!!!
Image of page 11
C.K. Tse: Operational Amplifiers 12 Examples (where Golden rules do not work) Comparator Suppose v 2 = 5V (constant) and v 1 is an input. This circuit is supposed to compare v 1 with 5V. But if v 2 has noise, the outputmay jump when v 2 is near 5V. ± 5V v 1 5V v 2 t v out
Image of page 12
C.K. Tse: Operational Amplifiers 13 Examples (where Golden rules do not work) Schmitt Trigger — a better comparator How does it work?
Image of page 13
Image of page 14

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 23 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors