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drugs resulting in the increased incarceration of minorities for longer periods of time mounted to the point where Congress had to do something. In 2009, a Fair Sentencing Act was introduced and passed by Congress and signed into law by President Obama 16
Instructor ResourceStohr,Corrections: From Research, to Policy, to Practice, 1st EditionSAGE Publishing, 2018on August 3rd, 2010. Under the act, the amount of crack cocaine subject to the 5-year minimum sentence is increased from 5 g to 28 g, thus reducing the 100-to-1 ratio to 18-to-1 ratio (28 g of crack gets as much time as 500 g of powder cocaine). Thus, there is still a large sentencing differential between possessors of crack versus possessors of powder cocaine. This ratio probably reflects lawmaker’s perceptions that crack is more intimately related to violence (in territorial battles) and to a higher probability of addictionthan the powder variety. Second part of essay is subjective.Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.Cognitive Domain: AnalysisAnswer Location: Sentencing for Crack Versus Powder CocaineDifficulty Level: Hard4. Discuss the case of United States v. Booker(2005). What did this case do to the sentencing guidelines as they were first implemented?