Parasympathetic 3 vmh ventromedial 4 anaclitic

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2. parasympathetic 3. VMH (ventromedial) 4. anaclitic depression 5. amygdala 6. oxytocin, vasopressin (ADH, anti-diuretic hormone) 7. DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) 8. polygyny 9. paternity certainty 10. right after birth (before nursing begins) 11. CRF (CRH) or CCK 4 12. surprise 13. acetylcholine 14. nucleus accumbens Specific nuclei - masculine and feminine forms: During the 3rd trimester (last 3 months) of prenatal development in humans, or in the perinatal period (days just before and just after birth) in many other mammals, the SDN-POA (sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic hypothalamus) differentiates permanently into a masculine or feminine form. This is dependent on the presence (male) or absence (female) of androgens (testosterone). It particularly affects whether masculine or feminine forms of sexual and aggressive behaviour are shown. Average sex differences in aggression / evolutionary basis: Males are more aggressive among themselves than are females in most mammalian species. Inter-male and territorial forms of aggression tend to be sexually dimorphic (with some species differences). Predatory aggression is more equal between the sexes, and females will fight defensively (for self or young). This is true in diverse species including people. This is believed to have evolved due to a tendency toward polygyny in most mammals (greater differential in reproductive success among males than among females), and the intense competition for females that occurs in differentiating male status. Pain perception: Pain perception is often not proportional to physiological injury, with minor injuries sometimes causing intense pain while major ones may sometimes produce little pain. Endorphins and enkephalins released in stress can produce analgesia, especially via sites in the PAG (periaquaductal grey) near the 4th ventricle and at synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. There are also descending nerves from PAG to various spinal cord locations that can inhibit transmission of impulses from the spinal cord to the brainstem.
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