19 Indeed, the public spending commitments embodied in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which introduced the sustainable development goals (United Nations, 2015a), and in the Paris Agreement on Climate Change (United Nations, 2015b) must also be built into these documents.
13 organizations in strengthening techniques for preparing overarching development strategies and their attendant development plans, expenditure and revenue frameworks, and annual budgets (Herman, 2018a). To this end and in a spirit of openness and collaboration, quite a number of governments have publicly presented their recent national experiences in devising sustainable development strategies at successive meetings of the High-Level Political Forum of the United Nations. While these official reports differ in scope, depth and frankness, there begins to be a database — including 188 country exercises as of July 2019 — that may prove useful in further development of national strategic planning tools. 20 Moreover, the World Bank has employed a custom designed analytical strategy for identifying binding constraints and open opportunities for more effectively “ending absolute poverty and boosting shared prosper ity in a sustainable manner” in over 100 developing countries. Although these reports are prepared as internal Bank documents, albeit in collaboration with national authorities and other stakeholders, they can also help country planners and policymakers in devising their sustainable development strategies and financing frameworks. 21 While there can be great variety in the development plans that emerge from the strategies, they should not be a “shopping list” of desir ed investments but a coherent package of policies across all the dimensions of sustainable development. The plan should take account of interactions among sectors and the differential impacts of policies by gender and income class. They should also take account of the economic, financial, social and political risks that countries face in the world at large, both in nature and in the economy. These risks should be lessened and not exacerbated by poor policy design. The plans also need to take account not least of the financial interactions among domestic sectors and externally. Governments thus need to track the likely requirements and implications of the plan on financial flows in and out of the country, on the external indebtedness of the government and private sector, on the overall debt burdens of the public, business and household sectors, on the institutional development of the financial sector, on the degree of financial sector fragility that regulations will tolerate, and on fiscal sustainability. Wary of such concerns, the Addis Agenda thus called upon countries to adopt “integrated national financing frameworks” (INFFs). While INFFs embody a broad concept, the Inter-Agency Task Force on Financing for Development (IATF), which services the follow-up discussions on the Addis Agenda at the United Nations, has been developing a broad methodology of building blocks and guidelines for developing INFFs,