Becker defined deviance as a social creation in which “social groupscreate deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutesdeviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labelingthem as outsiders.” Becker grouped behavior into four categories: falselyaccused, conforming, pure deviant, and secret deviant. 1.Falsely accused represents those individuals who have engaged inobedient behavior but have been perceived as deviant; therefore,POLO47
they would be falsely labeled as deviant. 2. Conforming represents those individuals who have engaged inobedient behavior that has been viewed as obedient behavior (notbeen perceived as deviant). 3.Pure deviant represents those individuals who have engaged inrule breaking or deviant behavior that has been recognized assuch; therefore, they would be labeled as deviant by society. 4.Secret deviant represents those individuals that have engaged inrule breaking or deviant behavior but have not been perceived asdeviant by society; therefore, they have not been labeled asdeviant.REINTEGRATIVE SHAMINGThe pivotal concept of the theory in Crime, Shame and Reintegration(Braithwaite, 1989) is reintegrative shaming. According to the theory,societies have lower crime rates if they communicate shame about crimeeffectively. They will have a lot of violence if violent behaviour is notshameful, high rates of rape if rape is something men can brag about,endemic white-collar crime if business people think law-breaking isclever rather than shameful.That said, there are ways of communicating the shamefulness of crimethat increase crime. These are called stigmatization. Reintegrativeshaming communicates shame to a wrongdoer in a way that encourageshim or her to desist; stigmatization shames in a way that makes thingsworse. So what is the difference? Reintegrative shaming communicates disapproval within a continuum ofrespect for the offender; the offender is treated as a good person whohas done a bad deed. Stigmatization is disrespectful shaming; theoffender is treated as a bad person. Stigmatization is unforgiving - theoffender is left with the stigma permanently, whereas reintegrativeshaming is forgiving - ceremonies to certify deviance are terminated byceremonies to decertify deviance. Put another way, societies that areforgiving and respectful while taking crime seriously have low crimerates; societies that degrade and humiliate criminals have higher crimerates.Related Terms POLO48
Decriminalization. Removing of status offenders from the jurisdictionof the juvenile justice system. Deinstitutionalization. The removal of juveniles from jails, detentioncenters, and institutions. Removing juveniles from these facilities, andwhen possible removing status and minor offenders from the juvenilejustice system as a whole, is the most basic type of diversion.