Becker defined deviance as a social creation in which social groups create

Becker defined deviance as a social creation in which

This preview shows page 47 - 50 out of 80 pages.

Becker defined deviance as a social creation in which “social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders.” Becker grouped behavior into four categories: falsely accused, conforming, pure deviant, and secret deviant. 1. Falsely accused represents those individuals who have engaged in obedient behavior but have been perceived as deviant; therefore, POLO 47
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they would be falsely labeled as deviant. 2. Conforming represents those individuals who have engaged in obedient behavior that has been viewed as obedient behavior (not been perceived as deviant). 3. Pure deviant represents those individuals who have engaged in rule breaking or deviant behavior that has been recognized as such; therefore, they would be labeled as deviant by society. 4. Secret deviant represents those individuals that have engaged in rule breaking or deviant behavior but have not been perceived as deviant by society; therefore, they have not been labeled as deviant. REINTEGRATIVE SHAMING The pivotal concept of the theory in Crime, Shame and Reintegration (Braithwaite, 1989) is reintegrative shaming. According to the theory, societies have lower crime rates if they communicate shame about crime effectively. They will have a lot of violence if violent behaviour is not shameful, high rates of rape if rape is something men can brag about, endemic white-collar crime if business people think law-breaking is clever rather than shameful. That said, there are ways of communicating the shamefulness of crime that increase crime. These are called stigmatization. Reintegrative shaming communicates shame to a wrongdoer in a way that encourages him or her to desist; stigmatization shames in a way that makes things worse. So what is the difference? Reintegrative shaming communicates disapproval within a continuum of respect for the offender; the offender is treated as a good person who has done a bad deed. Stigmatization is disrespectful shaming; the offender is treated as a bad person. Stigmatization is unforgiving - the offender is left with the stigma permanently, whereas reintegrative shaming is forgiving - ceremonies to certify deviance are terminated by ceremonies to decertify deviance. Put another way, societies that are forgiving and respectful while taking crime seriously have low crime rates; societies that degrade and humiliate criminals have higher crime rates. Related Terms POLO 48
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Decriminalization. Removing of status offenders from the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system. Deinstitutionalization. The removal of juveniles from jails, detention centers, and institutions. Removing juveniles from these facilities, and when possible removing status and minor offenders from the juvenile justice system as a whole, is the most basic type of diversion.
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