1970 And finally another source of error is when hard water is used Since hard

1970 and finally another source of error is when hard

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1970). And finally, another source of error is when hard water is used. Since hard water contains Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and other ions, their concentration will be a part of the calculated total cation concentration. A way to eliminate this error is if possible, to determine the water hardness of the water used in the preparation of the analyte solution so that the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ can at least be subtracted from the calculated cation concentration and reduce the error. (Skoog, et. al., 2004). REFERENCES Skoog, et. al. “Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry 8 th edition.” (2004). Print. Petrucci, et. al. “General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications 10 th edition.” (2011). Print. Rieman, and Walton. “Ion-exchange in Analytical Chemistry.” (1970). Google Books. Retrieved: May 5, 2016, 2:50 AM ? hl=en&lr=&id=f0H- BAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=effect %20of%20ph%20in%20ion%20exchange %20chromatography&ots=aqNC6APz_ W&sig=TaGUfd1y-z7S- GeHrUheg6h0BuM&redir_esc=y#v=on epage&q&f=true MIT Open Courseware. “Ion-Exchange Chromatography.” (2011). Pdf. Retrieved: May 5, 2016, 2:53 AM - atmospheric-and-planetary-sciences/12- 119-analytical-techniques-for-studying- environmental-and-geologic-samples- spring- 2011/labs/MIT12_119S11_Ion_Exchange .pdf Frank Smith and Richard Chi-cheng Chang. “The Practice of Ion Chromatography.” 1983. Google Books. Retrieved: May 5, 2016, 3:04 AM t/The_practice_of_ion_chromatography.h tml?id=j9PYGzUHGjMC&redir_esc=y Blaber, M., and Harvey, D. (n.d.). Ion exchange chromatography. Retrieved: May 5, 2016, 2:55 AM ical_Chemistry/Instrumental_Analysis/C hromatography/Liquid_Chromatography /Ion_Exchange_Chromatography The DOW Company. "DOW Ion Exchange resins - Pre-use Preparation – Resin for Industrial Use.” Retrieved: May 5, 2016, 2:59 AM detail/a_id/104/~/dow-ion-exchange- resins---pre-use-preparation---resin-for- industrial-use
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