Elements of an Argument.pdf

# Example a sufficient condition for getting an a in

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Example: A sufficient condition for getting an A in TC300 is getting an A on every piece of graded work in the course. This means that if a student gets an A on every piece of graded work in the course, then the student gets an A. Handing in a final report is not a sufficient condition for getting an A in the course. It is possible to hand in a term paper and not to get an A in the course. Getting an A on every piece of graded work is not a necessary condition for getting an A in the course. It is possible to get an A in the course even though one fails to get an A on some piece of graded work.

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Sufficient Conditions If we say that "x is a sufficient condition for y," then we mean that if we have x, then y must follow. In other words, x guarantees y. Example: Earning a total of 95% in this class is a sufficient condition for earning a final grade of A. If you have 95% for the course, then it must follow that you will have a final grade of A. Pouring a gallon of freezing water on my sleeping daughter is sufficient to wake her up. If I pour the gallon of freezing water on her then its guaranteed that she will wake up. Note: In none of these examples is the sufficient condition also a necessary condition .
Sufficient Conditions For example, it is unnecessary to earn 95% to earn an A in this course. You can earn 92% to earn an A. (We cannot say that if you do not have 95% points then you can't have an A.) It is not necessary to pour a gallon of freezing water on my daughter to wake her up. (An alarm clock will do it as well.)

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In Summary Arguments have three parts: 1. Data 2. Warrant 3. Claim The warrant joins the data and the claim by interpreting the data in terms of what is already known
In Summary The warrant makes inferences about what is already known in one of two ways: 1. Deduction Taking what is known about something in general and making a prediction about something in particular. The conclusion confirms what is already known. 2. Induction Taking what is known about something in particular and making a prediction about something in general . The conclusion asserts what will probably, but not certainly, happen.

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In Summary The probability of whether inferences are likely to occur depend on two conditions: 1. Necessary conditions Although X may be a necessary condition for Y to happen does not mean that X guarantees Y. 2. Sufficient conditions If X is a sufficient condition for Y to happen, then the presence/occurrence of X guarantees the presence/occurrence of Y.
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