a single treaty of the universal human right to water which are explicitly acknowledge by the legal system. A
revolutionary court decision came forth in 2010 as the United Nations General Assembly affirmed the
fundamental human right to water (Rossi 2010). This water crisis is the result of geographical, population growth,
urbanization, industrial pollution, and to a lesser extent climate change that have forced the society to devise
several alternatives to extract and store water. The methods to gain clean water has become so complex that
they can only be managed by those with capabilities. Reasonably this work involves a certain cost, which leads
it to an economic aspect. The local government holds the primary responsibility to provide safe drinking water.
However, when the infrastructure development costs become unaffordable due the current variance of countries
economical growth, the states may also pass on the service to private parties. The water industry creates a big
opportunity as access to safe water can be overturn from problem into potential; it creates a linkage to education,
work opportunities and improved health of individuals.
Global Water Bottled Industry
The modern bottled water industry has flourished within the past century, Transparency Market Research (TMR)
offers an eight-year forecast as it estimates the bottled water industry to grow by 6.6% Compound Annual Growth
Rate from 2016 to 2024. If the projections hold its ground, the industry will rise from US$169.9 billion to US$307.2
billion by 2024 (Transparency Market Research 2016). Bottled water is a well-established market in North
America and Europe. Africa, Asia-Pacific and South America are the emerging markets for demand of bottled
In 2015 the South America bottled water industry was valued at USD$ 59.3 billion, the European at
USD$69.6 billion and North America at USD$88.5 billion. Currently, the Asia-Pacific region is thriving as the
number one largest and fastest growing bottled water industry valued at USD103.2 billion. Highly influenced by
the rapid population growth, demand and urbanization. China takes the leading title of the largest bottled water
consumer and followed by India then Japan.
To clarify, the term bottled water refer to different products, three major types of bottled water can be identified
as: natural mineral water, spring water and purified water. Different materials are also used to packed the bottled
water such as glass or plastic. Whereas the bottled water industry is made up of numerous companies competing
in the market. It is possible to categorise them:
Small or large companies that was created to provide one brand of bottled water. Acqua Panna,
Arrowhead and Perrier are an example of spring water companies that are now under control of a major
multinational food company Nestle.
Soft drink companies are now entering the bottled water market. For example, Dasani and Smartwater
are under the Coca-Cola Company.