extracellular potassium concentration resulting in hyperkalemia. b. How does the body compensate for the acid base disorder which this patient is experiencing? During metabolic acidosis, the respiratory, renal, and cellular buffer systems compensate for the acidemia. The respiratory system increases the ventilation rate expelling more CO2 and reducing serum carbonic acid concentration (Huether, 2019). The kidneys excrete excess hydrogen into the urine by binding hydrogen ions to ammonia and dibasic phosphate resulting in acidic urine (Huether, 2019). The cells reduce acid by exchanging potassium for hydrogen intracellularly. If these buffer systems are working properly, the body will temporarily compensate for the acidotic state.
4 c. How does the anion gap help you to differentiate between the causes of this acid base disorder? The anion gap is normal, at 10 mEq/L. A normal anion gap indicates the metabolic acidosis is caused by a bicarbonate loss and chloride retention most commonly occurring in clients with diarrhea (Berend, 2017; Huether, 2019). A high anion gap metabolic acidosis indicates increased acid production or retention excluding carbonic acid. d. Describe the genetic alteration which results in sickle cell anemia. In sickle cell anemia, the gene responsible for making beta globin protein, hemoglobin beta gene (HBB), is mutated to an atypical hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. (Linder & McCance, 2019). This mutation changes the beta globin
- Fall '15
- pH, UTA, Zygosity, sickle cell trait, Phenylketonuria