In addition to the frameworks and approaches discussed above, certain frameworks that focus on unique and specific contexts have emerged. One such framework is the Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA)20most useful in conflict-prone areas. This assessment framework anticipates and evaluates the potential and actual impact and unintended consequences of a proposed or completed development project on the state of peace in the area. It is based on the premise that projects cannot bring about positive impact and change in a community if relationships (social and stakeholder capital) are poor or deteriorate. Diagram 1. The Spiralling of Capital Assets Source: Emery and Flora, 2006212.2 Knowledge-Based Development at the National Policy Level 17Myrdal, G. 1957. Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions. London: Duckworth. 18Gutierrez-Montes, I. 2005. Healthy Communities Equals Healthy Ecosystems? Evaluation (and Breakdown) of a Participatory Ecological Research Project towards a Community Natural Resource Management Process, San Miguel Chimalapa (Mexico). Ph. D. Dissertation. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 19Emery, M. and Flora, C. 2006. ―Spiralling Up: Mapping Community Transformation with Community Capitals Framework,‖Community Development, Spring, 37, 1, Social Science Module 20Bush, K. 1998. A Measure of Peace: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) of Development Projects in Conflict Zones. Working Paper No. 1, The Peacebuilding and Reconstruction Program Initiative & The Evaluation Unit. 21Emery, M. and Flora, C. 2006. ―Spiralling Up: Mapping Community Transformation with Community Capitals Framework,‖Community Development, Spring, 37, 1, Social Science Module
Knowledge for Poverty Alleviation (KPA) Framework - Talisayon and Suministrado Page 6 of 22 The World Bank proposed a knowledge-based framework at the national level, namely, the Knowledge-Based Economy (KBE) and a corresponding methodology for measurement, the Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM)22. KBE consists of four pillars, education, science & technology and innovation, ICT infrastructure and economic incentive regime. The first three are factors that have been observed to significantly influence national factor productivities.23KAM consists of corresponding national data elements that are readily available for longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons. In a technical note from the Asian Development Bank, the SD dimension was added to KBE, resulting in the Knowledge-Based Development (KBD)24framework (see Table 1, particularly the columns on ―Social‖ and ―Natural‖). KPA contributes to the operationalization of KBD by applying intellectual capital concepts to a very pressing global concern, namely, eradication of poverty25at the community level. KPA is designed for application of KBD in the design, implementation and evaluation of community-based anti-poverty projects.