Producers submitted films voluntarily, and films that passed could include a notice of approval vm100 study sheet 1, p. 10
Annie Yan MPPC allowed their films to be examined so they could gain respectability Although censorship boards continued to be formed on the municipal and state levels, no national censorship law was passed. Single-reel vs. feature films Single reels: no narrative or story and were typically 2-3 minutes long; shown in nickelodeons Feature: multi-reel; longer films; were typically prize-fight films or religious epics shown in legitimate theatres and not nickelodeons. Features were big budget quality production to match big budget venue (picture palaces) The MPPC had a rigid release system allowed for only single reels, and had to be released in one part per week. Beginning of the star system Before 1908, few actors worked regularly enough in films to be recognised, but IN 1908, producers started signing actors to longer contracts. 1909: audiences were showing interest in their favourite actors and asking theatre managers for their names or writing to the studios for photographs. Most notable: Florence Lawrence (worked in Griffith’s films) was known as “the Biograph girl” Florence Turner: “The Vitagraph Girl” Maurice Costello: Vitagraph’s heartthrob and dubbed “Dimples” Soon exploitation of actors began American domination of international markets Before WW1, France, Italy and other producing countries proved to be competition around the world. However, after the war, US films were becoming more and more popular. By 1911, 60-70% of films imported into GB were American. Without the war, Hollywood might not have gained a preeminent global position. Film d'Art Founded in 1908, identified itself with elite tastes. Lost money on most of its productions and was sold in 1911 Autorenfilm Publicised largely on the basis of a famous writer responsible for the script or the original literary work from which the film was adapted. Was the German equivalent of the Fim d’Art in France vm100 study sheet 1, p. 11
Annie Yan Established with Der Andere, 1913 adapted from a drama by Paul Lindau Was ultimately not successful The nickelodeon Typically small stores installed with fewer than two hundred seats Admission was usually a nickel or a dime for programs running 15-60 mins Most only had one projector Movie-going became less of a novelty and more a form of regular entertainment Cheaper than vaudeville houses and more regularly available Expenses were low Opened films to a mass audience Picture Palaces First one was created in 1914: “The Strand” in NYC. 2000 seats Showed features Started to attract the upper class Film exchanges By 1908, nickelodeons had become the main form of exhibition and as a result, many more movies were needed by the new distributors that brought prints from the producers The Move to Hollywood
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- Spring '08
- Annie Yan