This can almost always be considered to be an

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This can almost always be considered to be an ordinary polar covalent bond. The special name only serves to emphasize that coordinate bonds are typically easier to rearrange than other covalent bonds. Coordination complex: complex molecule or ion consisting of a central metal atom or ion acting as a Lewis acid with coordinate bonds to one or (usually) several Lewis bases Ligand: one of the Lewis bases in a coordination complex
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Complexes and ligands (continued) Coordination number: number of coordinate bonds formed by a metal centre A given metal ion in a given oxidation state typically has a preferred coordination number found in most of its compounds.
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Example: Aqua ions I As we have previously seen, these are often Brønsted acids. I Useful fact about pK a : I If the p H is lower than the pK a of an acid, the acid mostly exists in the protonated form. I If the p H is higher than the pK a , the acid mostly exists in the deprotonated form. I Example: hexaaquairon(III) ion [Fe(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ (aq) + H 2 O (l) [Fe(H 2 O) 5 (OH)] 2+ (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) purple yellow pK a = 2 . 2 (There is some complicated chemistry of this complex at higher pH.)
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I After losing a proton, some aqua ions form larger complexes with bridging hydroxy groups.
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