ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Personality traits are enduring characteristics that

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Personality traits are enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. Popular characteristics include shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal, and timid. The more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more important that trait is in describing the individual. The Myers-briggs Indicator is a personality test that taps 4 characteristics and classifies people into one of 16 personality types. The MBTI is essentially a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Based on answers that individuals give, they are classified as extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, and perceiving or judging, which are then combined into 16 personality types. Organizations using the MBTI include Apple Computer, AT&T, Citicorp, Exxon, plus many hospitals, educational institutions, and the U.S. armed forces. The Big five model says that five basic personality dimensions underlie all others. The five dimensions represented in this model are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and an openness to experience. Research on the “Big Five” has found important relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance . Some people believe they are masters of their own fate. Other people see themselves as pawns of fate, believing that what happens to them in their lives is due to luck or chance. The type who believe they control their destinies have been labeled as internals.On the other hand, those who see their lives as being controlled by outside forces have been called externals. Research has consistently shown that those who rate high in externality are less satisfied with their jobs, have higher absenteeism rates, are more alienated from the work setting, and are less involved on their jobs than are internals. "Locus of control" is the degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internals believe that health is substantially under their own control through proper habits, so they take more responsibility for their health and have better health habits. This leads to lower incidences of sickness and lower absenteeism. Machiavellianism is the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. “If it works, use it” is consistent with a high-Mach perspective. High-Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more than do low-Machs. It has been found that high-Machs flourish when they interact face-to-face with others rather than indirectly and when the situation has a minimum number of rules and regulations. People differ in the degree to which they like or dislike themselves. This trait is called self-esteem. The research on self- esteem offers interesting insights into organizational behavior. Self-esteem is directly related to expectations for success .
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