Political secret ballot direct election of senators

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Political: secret ballot, initiative/referendum/recall, direct election of senators, city manager/commission (get politics OUT of government), weeds out political machines;Fight over “Uncle” Joe Cannon’s Speaker position broke the Rep Party up more → Not going to be on the test, but could be on AP exam.UNINTENDED → Reduces voter participation, ironically, because the political machines had less influence with gifts, grafts, and (g?)jobs, but also b/c (
…of the “dictatorial” process of mgrs/commissionersSEVENTEENTH AMENDMENT NINETEENTH AMENDMENTEconomic:Payne – Aldrich actually INCREASED tariffs instead of decreased like it was supposed to.Broke up Standard OilTaft Stopped US Steel and Tennessee Coal & Iron (made TR mad) Ballenger pinchot was the third thing that ruined their relationship.Underwood – Simmons (1913) Tariffs reduces to 29%Federal Reserve of 1913 (president appointed) – b/c of “Roosevelt Panic” of ‘07 → WIlliam 12 banks owned by private banks, they had to put a certain % of their money in the regional reserve banksExpanded credit1909 – 1911: Postal savings banks & a form of the sub-treasury = low interest loans to farmers based on their harvests.Clayton Anti – Trust act: legalizes strikes and boycotts; gives more teeth to the Sherman act to break up “bad” monopoliesFTC: overseeing interstate commerce (not terribly effective @ first)President appts 5 people for 7 year termsConsumer protection & anti – competitive practicesProgressive Inc Tx – Amendment 16SocialProhibitionAnti – Saloon LgWorld War I for patriotism and food allocationState/local laws already in placeLaborLochner, Muller, Dagenhart casesBrandeisSociology of LawUse more than just precedentsUse anecdotal/sociological evidenceChildren’s (Labor?) Bureau 1907Keating – Owen Act: limit child labor (overturned in Dagenhart due to “freedom of contract”)Adkins v Children’s Hospitaloverturns women’s labor lawsUrbanTenement to row housing (brick housing doesn’t burn as easily)Street lightsBldg inspections (w/o the Tweed-type corruption)Secret ballotIncrease in sanitation efforts
PD/FD controlled by city hall and NOT party politicsPlaygrounds (Detroit/Cleveland)Taking over city utilities/street cars (Detroit/Cleveland)Settlement HousesYMCASocial Gospel Movement with Gladden and Rauschenbusch (god before self, self before wealth)ConservationNewlands Act of 1902: set aside $ from land sales to better irrigation projects and dams→ augmentation ofthe Desert lands act of 1970s. Take submarginal land (might not be bad, but no water) and create dams and irrigation Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy (ticked TR off, and broke the Rep Party up more)Roosevelt created the national forest service in 1905. He created this to manage the reserved areas of land across the nation.

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