16 control group a group of subjects in an experiment

Info icon This preview shows pages 2–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
16. Control Group - A group of subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable but are similar in all other respects to the group exposed to the independent variable. 17. Experimental Group - A group of subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable, in contrast to the control group, which is not. 18. Dependent Variable - A variable that is influenced by the effect of another variable (the independent variable). 19. Independent Variable - A variable that affects another variable (the dependent variable). Summary: Assumptions of the Sociological Perspective - Individuals are, by their nature, social beings - Individuals are, for the most part, socially determined - Individuals create, sustain, change the social forms within which they conduct their lives. - Four important implication that groups are human made (1) There are social forms that are created have a certain momentum of their own that defies change. (2) The social organizations, because they are created and sustained by people, are imperfect. (3) Through collective action, individuals are capable of changing the structure of society and even the course of history. (4) Individuals are not passive. Rather, they actively shape social life by adapting to, negotiating with, and changing social structures. ( human agency ) The Social Imagination - Stimulated by a willingness to view the social world from the perspective of others. - Focusing on social, economical and historical circumstances that produce the problem. - Single family → national budgets, low income person → national welfare policies, unemployed person → societal shift from manufacturing to a service/knowledge economy, single mother with a sick child → high cost health care from the uninsured, and homeless family → lack of affordable housing - Detachment from the taken-for-granted assumptions about social life and establishing critical distance - We begin to see solutions to social problems not in terms of changing people but in changing the structure of society. Problems with the Sociological Perspective - Discomforting because an understanding of society’s constraints is liberating. - Freeing us but the probability of frustration, anger and alienation. - Uncomfortable because the behavior of the subjects is not always certain. - “Sociology excites a unique set of reactions - it bores some and frightens others. … Sociology is extraordinary because it can be regarded as both trivial and threatening.” (Walton, 1990:4) The Historical Development of Sociology - Sociology emerged in Western Europe in the late 18th century during the Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason) - Auguste Comte (1978-1857): The Science of Society - Coined the world sociology: Latin socius “companion” “with others” and logos “study of”
Image of page 2

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
- Positivism - Emile Durkheim (1858-1917): Societal Facts and the Social Bond - Social facts - Social Integration: what holds groups and society together.
Image of page 3
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern