Effects of Behavior: (Smoking) on Prescribed Drugs Smoking cigarettes accounts for around 85 to 90 percent of all COPD cases and is the greatest risk factor for COPD. When one smokes, the burning cigarette creates more than 7,000 chemicals, many of which are detrimental. Toxins found in cigarette smoke make air passages narrow, weaken the lungs’ defenses against infections, destroy air sacs, and cause edema in air tubes—all of which contribute to the development of COPD as well as one dying from the disease. Women who smoke are about 13 times more likely to die from COPD than women who never smoked, and men who smoke are about 12 times more likely to die from COPD than men who never smoked (American Lung Association, n.d.). Smoking can decrease the effectiveness of medications used to treat COPD by predisposing smokers to increased respiratory infections which may precipitate the use of more and more antibiotics, thereby causing antibiotic resistance strains of bacteria. Smoking cigarettes may also cause the medications used to treat COPD to have to work harder to produce the same effects as they would in a non-smoker. Measures to Reduce Negative Side Effects To reduce negative side effects of medications used to treat COPD would be to prescribe drugs according to the GOLD guidelines for COPD, 2018 which are prescribed according to the COPD severity, exacerbation risk, and symptoms (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017). Other things that can reduce the risk for developing COPD itself would be to stop
smoking if you smoke; if you don’t smoke, then don’t start; avoid second-hand smoke exposure; protect yourself against environmental and occupational irritants (American Lung Association, n.d.) References American Lung Association. (n.d.). Lung health and diseases—COPD . Retrieved from . Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4 th ed.) . Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). (2018). Pocket guide to COPD diagnosis, management, and prevention—A guide for health care professionals . Retrieved from - print-v2.pdf. Huether, S. E. & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6 th ed.) . St. Lois, MO: Mosby. Lechtzin, N. (n.d.). Exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. Merck Manual Consumer Version . Retrieved from - the-lungs-and-airways/exchanging-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide. Lung Institute. (August 08, 2017). Bronchodilator 101: Uses and side effects . Retrieved from . Mayo Clinic. (August 11, 2017). COPD . Retrieved from - conditions/copd/symptoms-causes/syc-20353679?p=1; - conditions/copd/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353685?p=1. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (January 16, 2018). COPD . Retrieved from .
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