8 Discussion It is well known that all patient data are stored in di ff erent

8 discussion it is well known that all patient data

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8. Discussion It is well known that all patient data are stored in di ff erent formats in traditional healthcare delivery models, providers, laboratories, payers (i.e., insurance companies) and drug companies, and there is no standardization of record keeping. This has led to infringements of data and the disarray we see today in the exchange of health records. Poor infrastructure for data sharing has also impeded the progress of drug discovery and research into public health. E ff orts to address this issue have focused largely on forcing a new shared standard throughout the ecosystem. These attempts were unsuccessful because regulation, lobbying, and patient apathy quickly rejected them. Due to the lack of e ff ective processing and exchange of health data has prevented the widespread adoption of the practice of adjusting medical treatment to the attributes, desires and expectations of a patient. Personalized medicine–or precision –has long been recognized as the future of health care, and industry operators have devoted substantial resources to the development of personalized health care options, only to be stymied by the current system. In this article, we discussed the current needs of the healthcare industry, the shortcomings of the current system, and proposed Ethereum-based solutions for healthcare management. Giving an overview of the state of personalized medicine, detailing concerns with the current healthcare system that hinder the implementation of personalized medicine and demonstrating how our designed system o ff ers solutions to these problems. We also analysed the practical cost of deploying smart contracts for di ff erent health care scenarios and found that the cost increases linearly with outpatient numbers. For these reasons, health care departments like paediatrics and general surgery costs are higher than others. However, quantitatively it is seen that the cost of deployment of smart contracts is quite reasonable and therefore such an Ethereum-based system for maintenance of health records is feasible in realistic scenarios. 9. Conclusions Using blockchain technology, our smart contract based healthcare management system has shown how decentralization principles can be applied in medical ecosystem for large-scale data management and to streamline complex medical procedures. We demonstrate an innovative approach to medical record handling, providing auditability, interoperability and accessibility using smart contracts. Designed to record flexibility and granularity, this system enables the sharing of patient data and incentives to support the system for medical researchers. We have proposed potential applications
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Electronics 2020 , 9 , 94 20 of 23 of blockchain technology in the management of health data. We implemented a system for data management and sharing based on the requirements from a medical perspective. Using blockchain technology, privacy, security, availability and fine-grained control of access to EHR data can be ensured. The ultimate goal of using blockchain the way outlined in this paper is to improve healthcare processes and thus patient outcomes. Blockchain can help in many ways; reducing transaction costs by
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