All over the world creation of wealthforeign goods

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all over the world, creation of wealth>>foreign goods, luxury items, and technological innovations spread rapidly in industrialized countries19thcentury Civil Wars in Germany, Italy, US, and Japan:Unification>> civil wars unify countries that were either fragmented (Italy and Germany) or in danger of fragmentation (US and Japan)Industrialized regions versus less industrialized regions>>industrializedregions overcome less industrialized onesPolitical power>> consolidation leads to military efficiency, economic growth, and colonial expansionJustification for wars of unity>> leaders appeal to conservative values: “restoration” in Japan, medieval past in Italy and Germany, Founding Fathers and “Reconstruction” in the USTransformations of Western Science and Thought 20thcentury:Physics/Mathematics- Henri Poincare notes elastic connections between hypothesis and evidence and how multiple hypotheses can fit results of
experiments>> Albert Einstein proves speed of light is constant>> Ernest Rutherford establishes basis of subatomic world>> Niels Bohr describes light as consisting of both waves and particles>> helped unleash the power of charged subatomic particles in technology, including weapons, communications, microprocessors, integrated circuits, the “new physics” revolutionizes astronomy, chemistry, other physical sciencesAnthropology-Franz Boas’ comparative study of societies shows that no race is superior to any other in brainpower>> cultural relativism studies communities in context of their own traditions, widened appreciation for non-Western culturesPsychology-Sigmund Freud argued that subconscious motivates human behavior, developed psychoanalysis to uncover subconscious feelings>>therapeutic treatment for mental and emotional problems, transformation of school curriculums, child raising to conform with stages of child development, widespread interest in popular psychologyThe World War Era, 1914-1945:Germany, Austria- Hungary, Ottoman Empire vs. Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy- World War I>> imperial and national rivalries>>defeat of Germany dismantling of Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires, Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Britain and France victorious but empires weakened and discredited, United States emerges as richest nation in the world, League of Nations formed, postwar disillusionment pervades EuropeJapan vs.China- second Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945>> various incidents instigated by Japan lead to full-scale war in 1937 in an attempt by Japan to turn China into a subject territory>> Japanese invade China and turn Manchuria into a puppet state, Sino-Japanese conflict merges with WWIIAllies (GB, US, Soviet Union) vs.Axis (Germany, Italy, Japan)- World War II 1939-1945>> clash between different ideologies and forms of government (fascism, communism, democracy) and national/imperial interests>>Axis powers are defeated, eastern Europe falls under Soviet domination, Germany divided, Holocaust forced migrations transform European society, Japanese

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