violence in general gun violence and fatal shootings in particular are

Violence in general gun violence and fatal shootings

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• violence in general, gun violence and fatal shootings in particular are concentrated in specific small areas of South Manchester • victims of gun violence in South Manchester are mainl y young, black or mixed race males, who themselves have criminal records • those who have been victims of shootings are at increased risk of being a victim again • perpetrators of serious gun violence in South Manchester are mainly young black or mixed race males, who have criminal records • about 60 per cent of shootings are thought to gang related • there are strong social norms (in particular in providing evidence in court) inhibiting co-operation with police enquiries into gang-related shootings, which undermine successful prosecution of offenders • alliances are sometimes formed between South Manchester gangs, but conflict is endemic and easily triggered • gangs in South Manchester are loosely turf -based • there are significant differences in the origins, activities, and organisation of the four main South Manchester gangs known to the police, though members of all the gangs are involved in a wide range of criminal behaviour • gang -related criminal behaviour includes drug-related offences, but only as one element of a patchwork of violent and non-violent crime • gang membership is not just about criminality; for some young males it incorporates a credible lifestyle choice • gang -membership comprises a mix of same-age local friendship groups, blood relatives and recruits • the carrying of firearms by gang -members is part protective, and part symbolic, though they are also sometimes used in the commission of violent crime
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