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SYSTEMS PAGE 10 Horizontal Loads Forces created by wind or seismic activity are considered to act in the horizontal plane. While seismic activity is capable of including vertical forces, this discussion will be based only on horizontal forces. The majority of this section will address wind forces and how they are transferred to the primary structural systems of the building (see Figure 3). Wind pressures act on the building's vertical surfaces and create varying forces across the surface of the façade. The exterior façade elements, as well as the primary lateral load resisting system, are subjected to the calculat- ed wind pressures stipulated by code requirements. This variation accounts for façade elements being exposed to isolated concentrations of wind pressures that may be redistributed throughout the structural system. Design wind pressures can be calculated using a documented and statistical history of wind speeds and pressure in con- junction with the building type and shape. Calculated wind pressures act as a pushing force on the windward side of a building. On the leeward (trailing) side of the building, the wind pressures act as a pulling or suction force. As a result, the exterior façade of the entire building must be capable of resisting both inward and outward pressures.

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• Fall '19
• Structural steel

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