Chapters 9 & 10:People:1.James Madison:Political leader after the revolution, he made very useful contributions to the constitutional convention and was called the “Father of the Constitution.” As a federalist, he created the bill of rights and put them through congress. He also took part in the writing of the Federalist Papers.2.Alexander Hamilton:George Washington’s Secretary of the Treasury. He was a die-hard federalist who sought to correct the financial situation of the young United States by imposing taxes and tariffs, taking on the national and states debts accumulated by the country and creating the Bank of the United States. His arch enemy was Thomas Jefferson.3.John Adams:Second president of the United States (1797-1801) who was very refined and hailed from New England. He prevented the country from warring with France by diffusing situations diplomatically.4.John Jay:Federalist who was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He helped in the creation of the Federalist Papers and negotiated with Britain in 1794 creating Jay’s Treaty.5.Captain Daniel Shays:Leader of Shays’ Rebellion in 1786.6.George Washington:First president of the United States (1789-1797) He established the executive branch’s cabinet and proved the new government’s effectiveness. Washington kept a policy of neutrality throughout his presidency, diffusing embroilments with Britain. He left officeafter his second term, creating a precedent.7.Thomas Jefferson:President Washington’s Secretary of State. He was the leader of the Democratic –Republican Party and bitterly rivaled with Alexander Hamilton. He became the vicepresident under John Adams. 8.Framing Fathers:Political leaders who played a large part in the creation of the Constitution. These include George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton.9.Federalist:Someone who believes in a strong central government. Became a political party that believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution.10. Anti-Federalist:Someone who denounced a strong central government and advocated states’ rights. Evolved into the Democratic-Republican Party.11. John Marshall:A federalist who was a diplomat in the XYZ Affair and refused to pay Talleyrand. 12. Henry Knox:President Washington’s Secretary of War.13. Citizen Edmond Genet:A representative of the French Republic who took advantage of the Franco-American alliance by recruiting American privateers for unneutral activity.14. General Anthony Wayne:An American who attacked the Miami Indians in 1794 at the battle of Fallen Timbers. The Indians offered him a peace agreement, surrendering their lands.
15. George the III:King of England during the time of Washington and Adams’ presidencies.16. Thomas Pinckney:Arranged Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain in 1795.17. Foreign Minister Talleyrand:The foreign minister of France who demanded a sum of $250,000 just for American envoys to meet with him. (XYZ Affair)18. Democratic-Republicans:A political party led by Thomas Jefferson that called for a weak central government, more states’ rights and a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
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