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ner in which modernist literary texts not only establish a break with established ways of looking but also draw attention to the way in which a work of art views, presents and interprets what it sees. What the comparison with cubism also draws attention to is that modernism was an international movement in the arts, and one particularly asso-ciated with capital cities; time and time again, the classic texts of mod-ernism are about huge, anonymous an.cl dispiriting modem cities. James Joyce's stories and novels, however, are set in a small capital city, Dublin, where people still know each other. Joyce published a collection of short stories, Dubliners, in 1914, and this was followed by A Portrait of the Artistas a Young Man (1916), serialised by Ezra Pound in the Egoist in 1914 and 1915. It was also in 1914 that Joyce began Ulysses, which appeared serially in a New York magazine, The Little Review, from 1918 to 1920 , when it was banned after a prosecution instigated by the Society for the Suppression of Vice. It was published as a book in Paris and London in 1922, but the book was banned in Britain and America. U!Ysses is an account of the thoughts and experiences of Leopold Bloom, a Jewish advertisement canvasser, and Stephen
252 A Brief History of English Literature Dedalus, a school teacher, who is also the central character in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. It is set during a single day in Dublin. Bloom's day is structured to parallel the wanderings of Odysseus in Homer's epic poem . Ulysses was followed by Joyce's final work, Finnegans Wake, in 1939. The first thing that can be said about A Portrait of theArtist asa Young Man is that it is in some ways the same novel as D. H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers: an artistic young man who is trapped by his family, and particularly at odds with his father, tries to break free by establishing relationships with women. Both young men, as they grow up, are opinionated and annoy other people. And at the end, both young men escape, Stephen leaving Ireland, and Paul Morel turning his back on his birthplace and walking towards the city. But if the two novels have a great deal in common, they also have a great deal that sets them apart. Most obviously, there is the extraordinary manner in which A Portrait of the Artist is written. The truth is that the style of Sons and Lovers is just as original and innovatory as that of Joyce's novel, but A Portrait of the Artist is wilfully odd. From the outset, Joyce finds ways of distancing his novel from the structures of perception that characterise nineteenth-century fiction: Once upon a time and a very good time it was there was a moocow com-ing down along the road and this moocow that was coming down along the road met a nicens little boy named baby tuckoo .. . .