Table III shows the FAR and FRR of the PL PUFs under the active duration from 1

Table iii shows the far and frr of the pl pufs under

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Table III shows the FAR and FRR of the PL-PUFs under the active duration from 1 to 16. In the table, the FAR and FRR of the 8 devices out of 16 are described. As the table shows, the FAR and FRR get worse as the active duration of the PUF increases. As Figure 5-8 and Table III show, the individuality of the PL-PUF are quite high under the sufficiently short active duration. However, a too much short active duration is not always preferable for individuality as the figures and table indicate. For example in Device 4 and 5, the FAR and/or FRR are more than zero for c = 1 but are zero for c = 2 . The reason of the result is that the device variation is not fully extracted when the active duration is too much short. D. Multi-functionality Table IV shows the intra-duration HDs of the same device under the different active durations. We obtained the Hamming distance between the ID under c = 1 (ID 1 ) and IDs under the other durations (ID c , 2 c 16 ). As the table shows, the average inter-duration HDs between ID 1 and other ID c are nearly 64 and the deviations are reasonably small. As a result, the outputs of the PL-PUF are considered quite dissimilar under the different active durations, and thus a single PL-PUF can equivalently operate as a chip with several PUF cores. This property could shrink the area of the circuit of the system adopting the ‘defense-in-depth’ strategy where multiple PUFs are needed. Additionally, this property could lead the PUF to being unclonable since cloning the challenge-response mapping for all the possible durations is considered impractical. E. Overall Discussion Considering the above results, the PL-PUF is thought to have notably high reproducibility and individuality, and therefore it is quite useful for device identification and other security-sensitive applications. That is, the PL-PUF realizes efficient ID generation without spoiling the reliability. The PL-PUF also has high multi-functionality, which is expected to lead the circuit to being compact and unclonable. The suitable duration of the operation will differ from application to application. If the output of the PUF is used for secret key generation in the cryptographic modules, the reproducibility should be sufficiently high. We might want to restrict the bit error rate of the output to less than 10%, and in this case the active duration of less than 4 would be reasonable. If the output is used for device identification, it is required that the intra- and inter-HD distributions are distinguishable, and therefore the active duration less than 8 will suffice for the purpose. VI. C ONCLUSIONS We developed a PUF with novel structure called a Pseudo- LFSR PUF (PL-PUF) and empirically demonstrated its fea- sibility and effectiveness. The PL-PUF realizes a compact, efficient, multi-functional and reliable device ID generator.
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