overall lifestyle as well as a result of long-term goals and plans (e.g. becoming a sales manager) and short-term needs (hunger). SITUATIONAL FACTORS Situational factors include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus (i.e., the ad or package) and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment, such as time pressures or a crowded store. Program involvement: In general, the audience is attending to the medium because of the program or editorial content, not the advertisement. In fact, as we saw earlier, many individuals actively avoid commercials by zapping them. 2.7.3. Interpretation Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to sensations. It is a function of the gestalt, or pattern, formed by the characteristics of the stimulus, the individual, and the situation. Thus, the entire message, including the context in which it occurs, influences our interpretation, as does the situation in which we find ourselves. For example, our beliefs about a product are influenced by our beliefs about the capabilities and social responsibility of the company that produces it as well as its price, country of origin, and the store in which it is sold. The interpretation of a ‘sale’ sign on a brand depends on how many other brands are on sale as well as the past history of sales for the brand. Cognitive Interpretation It is a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning. This is an interactive process. The addition of new information to existing categories also alters those categories and their relationships with other categories. The more radically ‘new’ a new product is (a discontinuous innovation), the more difficult it is to place into an existing category or knowledge structure. It is the individual’s interpretation, not objective reality that influences behavior. A firm may introduce a high-quality new brand at a lower price than existing brands because the firm has a more efficient production or marketing process. However, if consumers interpret this lower price to mean lower quality, the new brand will not be successful regardless of the objective reality. Affective Interpretation: It is the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad. Like cognitive interpretation, there are ‘normal’ (within-culture) emotional responses to many stimuli. Likewise there are also individual variations to this response. Consumers confronting new products or brands often assign them to emotional as well as cognitive categories.
DBA 1722 NOTES 44 ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI 2.8. LEARNING Learning is the term used to describe the processes by which memory and behavior are changed as a result of conscious and nonconscious information processing. Learning is essential to the consumption process. In fact, consumer behavior is largely learned behavior.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 203 pages?
- Fall '13