Khomeini retained traditional attitudes toward the

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- Khomeini retained traditional attitudes toward the state throughout the 40s, 50s, and 60s - He expressed “deep sorrow” that the shah would mistreat the clergy. even after his own deportation he still continued to accept monarchies as legitimate - He did not develop a new concept of state and society until the late 1960s - not entirely clear where this new thinking came from
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- Should be noted that Khomeini formulate his new ideas at a time when social tensions within Iran were sharply increasing. - peasants flooding the shantytowns in the cities. small businessmen were feeling threatened by wealthy entrepreneurs linked to the central government and by the multinational corporations - in the 70s, Khomeini gave some famous lectures. In them, he straight up said that Islam was inherently incompatible with all forms of Monarchy. he argued that monarchy was a “pagan” institution that the “despotic” Umayyads had adopted from the Roman and Sassanid empires. - argued that monarchies were tantamount to false gods, idolatry, and sowing corruption on earth. - He insisted muslism have the sacred duty to oppose all monarchies. they must not collaborate with them, have recourse to their institutions, pay for their bureaucracies, or practice dissimulation to protect themselves. - they also have the duty to rise up against monarchies. argues that most kings have been criminals, oppressors, and mass murderers. thoroughly unjust people - He stressed that the clergy as a whole kept alive “national consciousness” and stood firm as the “fortress of independence” against imperialism, secularism, and other isms imported from the west Khomeini’s View of Society - his ideas about societ developed along parallel lines with his ideas about the state. - he accepted the conventional paternalistic assumptions that God had created both private property and society; society should be formed of a hierarchy of mutually dependent strat; the poor should accept their lot and not envy the rich; and the rich should thank God, avoid conspicuous consumption, and give generously to the poor. - In his post-1970s writings, khomeini depicted society as sharply divided into two warring classes: the oppressed against the oppressors; the poor against the rich; the oppressed nation against “satan’s government;” slum dwellers against palace dwellers; lower class against upper class; needy class against aristocratic class. - his later writings often refer to martyrdom and the oppressed - Khomeini targeted the Shah on a host of highly sensitive socioeconomic issues. - accused him of: - widening the gap between the rich and poor; - favoring cronies relatives, and senior officials; - wasting oil resources on the ever-expanding army and bureaucracy; - setting up assembly plants (not real manufacturing industries); - ignoring the countryside in the distribution of essential services (like clinics, schools, electricity, and public baths); - failing to give land to the landless peasantry; - condemning the working class to a life of poverty, misery, and drudgery;
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  • Spring '13
  • The Republic, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Pahlavi dynasty, Islamists

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