The following table table 3 shows the relationship between cigarette smoking

# The following table table 3 shows the relationship

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The following table (table 3) shows the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer among male cases and controls. Table 3. Smoking status, lung cancer cases and matched controls with other diseases. CASES CONTROLS SMOKERS 1340 1286 NON SMOKERS 17 71 TOTAL 1357 1357 a. Discuss how representative of all persons with lung cancer are hospitalized patients with lung cancer? [ONE POINT] The hospitalized patients are in the later stages of cancer. Therefore, those who are hospitalized do not give a correct representation of lung cancer. b. Discuss how representative of the general population without lung cancer are hospitalized patients without lung cancer? [ONE POINT] This is still not a good representation of the general population. c. Estimate the odds ratio from the data in table 3 (ABOVE) and interpret the odds ratio. [ONE POINT] OR = ad/bc = (1340x71)/ (17x1286) OR = 4.35. This indicates that there is a positive association between smoking and the development of lung cancer.

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APPLIED EPIDEMIOLOGY 10 20. Data on 1075 male respondents to the 2003 Health Information National Trends Study were collected from October 2002 to April 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to examine the associations among race/ethnicity, and the perception of the risk of developing prostate cancer for African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men aged ≥45 years without a history of prostate cancer. What study design is been used for this study? Why? [ONE POINT] Cross-sectional study: The data was collected for collected for a given period of time (2002-2003). Importantly, the data was only obtained once even through the study continued until 2008. 21. Explain the relationship between specificity and false positive results? Give example (ONE POINT) Specificity means that a disease is caused by one specific factor. On the other hand, false positive results indicates that a given factor is responsible for causing a disease when it is not. For instance, if a test is designed to test malaria and the test shows that the person is malaria positive when the person does not have malaria, then this is a perfect example of a false positive result. 22. The figure below represented the number of cases of salmonella isolation by months of isolation. a. Discuss the steps for conducting an outbreak investigation for this disease. [TWO POINTS] The first step in conducting an outbreak for this type of disease is to confirm that the disease really exists. This can be done through diagnosis. The second step is to locate those who are already affected by the disease. After that, the disease is described with reference to time and place and then the hypotheses developed. The investigators then initiates control measures and communicates the results to the public.
APPLIED EPIDEMIOLOGY 11 23. The figures (1, 2, and 3) below represented the epidemiologic curve for outbreak investigation. Discuss the type of source of the epidemic for each figure (ONE POINT). Figure 1: Common source Figure 2: Point source Figure 3: Propagated source 24. The following table represents the results of a study to investigate an outbreak of gastroenteritis in California. Using the data in table 4 (the table below), complete the following: a. Attack rate (AR) for those who ate the specific identified food and those who did not eat these food [ONE POINT] Attack Rate (AR) = number of new cases/ total population b.

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