S and so 2 be sure to draw their lewis dot structures

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Chapter 7 / Exercise 7.50
Chemistry for Engineering Students
Brown/Holme
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S, and SO 2 . Be sure to draw their Lewis dot structures to help you determine their molecular shapes. Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonding is a particularly strong dipole-dipole interaction in which hydrogen is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative element, and attracted to the very electronegative element in another molecule. It occurs only in molecules containing N-H, O-H or F-H bonds, the large difference in electronegativity between the H atom and the N, O or F atom leads to a highly polar covalent bond (the difference in electronegativity is higher than 1.1). Hydrogen's small atomic radius allows two molecules containing these polar bonds to come in very close contact with each other, increasing the attraction between the dipoles of each molecule. This drawing represents the hydrogen bond interactions in the molecule of water: © 2010 FLVS
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Chemistry for Engineering Students
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Chapter 7 / Exercise 7.50
Chemistry for Engineering Students
Brown/Holme
Expert Verified
Hydrogen bonding is the strongest of the intermolecular forces. Three common molecules that experience this attraction between their molecules are HF, NH 3 , and H 2 O. This force of attraction is responsible for the surface tension of water that was demonstrated and explored in the introduction to this lesson, and also for its high boiling point of water (100 °C) compared to the other group 16 hydrides that have no hydrogen bonds. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partly responsible for the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins and nucleic acids. It also plays an important role in the structure of polymers, both synthetic and natural. Ion-Dipole Forces Ion-dipole forces are attractive forces that result from the electrostatic attraction between an ionic compound and a polar molecule. This interaction is most commonly found in solutions, especially in solutions of ionic compounds in polar solvents, such as water. When salt, NaCl, is added to water, the positive ion (cation) Na+ attracts the partially negative end of the water polar molecule; while the negative ion (anion) Cl- attracts the partially positive end. As the water molecules move away from the cluster, they carry the sodium and chlorine atoms apart. This process "dissolves" the salt molecules in the water. © 2010 FLVS The many small dipoles of polar water attract the ions in the ionic crystal. The negative ions are attracted to the positive end of the polar molecule, while the positive ions are attracted to the negative end of the polar molecule. Because there is a full charge on the ions and a partial charge on the dipole molecules, these ion-dipole forces are stronger than dipole-dipole forces, but not as strong as ionic bonds. We will explore the attraction between polar molecules and ions further when we study mixtures and solutions later in this course. Review London dispersion forces Dipole-dipole forces Hydrogen bonding Ion-dipole forces Experienced by all molecules and particles. Experienced by all polar molecules. Experienced by polar molecules in which hydrogen is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative element. Experienced by ions interacting with polar molecules in

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