Under stress memories of a trauma may be stored in a

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Under stress memories of a trauma may be stored in a way that they are not accessible to awareness when the person has returned to a normal state - Outcomes are amnesia or fugue - Behavioural view - Consider dissociation as an avoidance response that protects the person from stressful events and memories of these events - Person does not consciously confront painful memories, so the fear has no way to be extinguished - Trauma is believed to cause distress and the inability to tolerate and regulate distress which is believed to contribute to dissociation CHAPTER 14 Introduction - Each of us is a sexual being with preferences and fantasies - When fantasies or desires affect us or others in unwanted or harmful ways - they qualify as abnormal 14.1 Gender Identity Disorder and Gender Dysphoria - Sense of gender identity is deeply ingrained from early childhood (male or female) - Sexual identity or sexual orientation - Preference we have for the sex of a partner - Characteristics of gender identity disorder - No longer considered a disorder but when it was considered a disorder - Referred to as transexualism - Feeling deep within oneself that they are of the opposite sex
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- Aversion to same-sex clothes and activities - Anatomy and secondary sex characteristics (breasts or beards) does not persuade them that they are what others see them to be - Can experience a body to be the opposite sex - Surgical alterations can be done - Transvestic Disorder - Dress in clothing typical of the opposite sex but do not identify as the opposite sex - People with gender identity issues experience anxiety and depression - GID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorder - Gender dysphoria - Term used in DSM-5 to account for people suffering from identity related distress - Stronger emphasis on a sense of “gender incongruence” - Take many forms and be expressed specifically in many ways - Research indicates that gender identity is influenced by hormones - Strong biological influence on gender identity - Therapies for gender identity issues - 2 main types - Attempts to alter the body to suit the person’s psychology - Attempts to alter the psychology to suit the person’s body - Body alterations - Required to undergo 6-12 months of psychotherapy - Focuses on the anxiety and depression - Talks about available options for altering her or her body - Sex- reassignment surgery - Operation in which the existing genitalia are altered to make them more like the opposite sex - Frequently used by more men than women 14.2 The Paraphilias - Group of disorders involving sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities that are unusual in nature - Deviation (PARA) in what the person is attracted (PHILIA) to
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- Fantasies, urges or behaviours must last 6+ months and cause distress or impairment - Some paraphilias may not be disorders because they do not cause distress - Difference between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders - Paraphilias do not cause distress or impairment whereas paraphilic disorders do - Most people with paraphilias are men -
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  • Spring '14
  • KathyFoxa
  • Schizophrenia, Borderline personality disorder, Antisocial personality disorder, Avoidant personality disorder

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