UCSB_MCDB110_FinalExam_Winter2009-1497285260178.pdf

A 2 points label the two ends of the molecule b 4

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a) (2 points). Label the two ends of the molecule b) (4 points). Draw the RNA strand that is copied from this template and label the ends. 5’ UCCAUGGCCAAAUU 3’ 30. (7 points). a) (3 points). A problem is faced by eukaryotic cells when they use NADH from glycolysis in oxidative phosphorylation that is not a problem with the NADH produced by the TCA cycle. Briefly describe this problem. The problem faced by eukaryotic cells is transporting NADH created in the cytoplasm by glycolysis into the mitochondria where it is used in oxidative phosphorylation. b) (4 points). What are two strategies used by eukaryotic cells to solve this problem? Describe the energy costs of each strategy. This problem is overcome through the use of a shuttling system for electrons. 1) Malate shuttle: results in the net conversion of 1 NADH in the cytoplasm to 1 NADH in the mitochondrial matrix; thus, there is no ATP cost. 2) Glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle: results in the net conversion of NADH in the cytoplasm to 1 FADH 2 in the mitochondrion; thus, it costs 1 ATP per pair of electrons transferred from NADH.
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Name ____________________ -11- Comprehensive material (22 points). True or False. Indicate the appropriate answer. Enter A = True; B = False on the Scantron form . 31. Organelles such as mitochondria are on the order of 10,000 Å. TRUE 32. While the charge on the side chain of proline is the same at pH 2.0 and pH 12.0, it is different for histidine at these two pHs. TRUE 33. A positive S means that a reaction will always be favorable. FALSE 34. A plot of velocity versus [S] is hyperbolic for all enzyme-catalyzed reactions. FALSE 35. The Km is equal to half the maximum velocity of an enzyme. FALSE 36. Chymotrypsin interacts with its substrate by both non-covalent and covalent interactions. TRUE 37. Cyclization of glucose results in a ring containing six carbons. FALSE 38. Sterols are sphingolipids that plasticize membranes. FALSE 39. Glycolysis can occur in the absence of oxygen. TRUE 40. Two radiolabelled carbons in acetyl-CoA are lost as CO 2 during one round of the TCA cycle. FALSE 41. β -oxidation of fatty acids to acetyl-CoA generates ATP, FADH 2 , and NADPH. FALSE
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Name ____________________ -12- 42. Cystine is a) formed through a peptide bond between two cysteines. b) formed when two -CH 2 -SH side chains are oxidized to form a –CH 2 -S-S-CH 2 - bond . c) an example of a non-standard amino acid. d) formed by the oxidation of the carboxylic acid group on cysteines. e) a and b. 43. Which of the following amino acid side chains can participate in acid/base catalysis within the active site of an enzyme? a) methionine b) histidine c) tryptophan d) proline e) b and d 44. A small molecule that decreases the activity of an enzyme by binding to a site other than the active site is termed: a) a cooperative inhibitor b) a competitive inhibitor c) a transition-state analogue d) an allosteric inhibitor e) a homotropic allosteric effector 45. Anfinsen found that treatment of ribonuclease with urea and a disulfide reducing agent, followed by removal of these agents, results in active ribonuclease.
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