o fMRI – Pays attention to blood flow. Picks up on hemoglobin. ● The brain o Hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain ▪ Parts of each and their functions ● Hindbrain – The oldest part, most in common with other members of the animal kingdom. o Pons/medulla – they are responsible for keeping us alive, regulate breathing and digestion. o Cerebellum – responsible for movement and balance. o Reticular Formation – regulates sleep and awake cycle. ● Midbrain – The messenger, carries information from one part of the brain to the next.
● Forebrain - Most complex. o Hypothalamus – is responsible for motivation of actions. Hunger motivation. Also responsible for sexual motivation. o Amygdala – Regulates emotions. o Hippocampus – Responsible for moving information back and forth in memory. ▪ Cerebral cortex – The part of the brain that is responsible for sensation and perception. The most advanced part. ● Four lobes o Frontal – the most advanced lobe, responsible for the higher- level abilities, being able to read and do math, etc. o Parietal – Responsible for the sense of touch. o Occipital – Responsible for the sense of sight. “Eyes in the back of your head” o Temporal – side of the head, responsible for sense of hearing. ▪ Association areas - Association cortex is the cerebral cortex outside the primary areas. It is essential for mental functions that are more complex than detecting basic dimensions of sensory stimulation, for which primary sensory areas appear to be necessary. ● Wernicke’s v. Broca’s - Wernicke's area is the region of the brain that is important for language development. It is located in the temporal lobe on the left side of the brain and is responsible for the comprehension of speech, while Broca's area is related to the production of speech. (Broca’s aphasia) ● Two hemispheres - The left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also performs tasks that have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics. On the other hand, the right hemisphere coordinates the left side of the body, and performs tasks that have do with creativity and the arts. o Split-brain experiments ▪ Gazzaniga video ● Endocrine system – the system of ductless glands that secrete hormones and release them directly into the blood stream. o Four differences between hormones and neurotransmitters ▪ From ductless glands instead of from neurons ▪ Via the bloodstream instead of a synapse like neurotransmitters – how they move through the body ▪ They can go longer distances than neurotransmitters
▪ They have longer duration. o Roles of the various glands and the hypothalamus ▪ The pituitary – responsible for growth, tumors, hypothalamus is connected ▪ Hypothalamus – general of the other glands, tells where to secrete hormones.
- Spring '12
- axon terminal