●Peacefully exists with multiple languages.●The key is a long tradition of decentralized government, in which local authorities hold mostof the power,, and decisions are frequently made by voter refrenda.●Four official languages: German, French, Italian, and Romansh●Swiss voters made Romansh an official language in a 1938 referendum, despite the small percentage of people that use the language.●Divided into four linguistic regions, but people living in individual communities, especially in the mountains, may use a language other than the prevailing local one.●Displays problems that an arise from the presence of many speakers of many languages●527 distinct languages, only three of which have widespread use--Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo, each spoken by one-eighth of the population●Groups living in different regions of Nigeria have often battled●Nigeria reflects the problems that can arise when great cultural diversity--and therefore language diversity-- is packed into a relatively small region
The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Name___William Gehrke_____________Chapter 5: Languages3.Complete the chart below by taking notes on the various languages/countries & the issues they are facing.Basque – ●Best example of an isolated language in Europe●The only language currently spoken in Europe that survives from the period before the arrival of Indo-European speakers●Was once spoken over a wider area but was abandoned where its speakers came in contact with Indo-Europeans●Lacks connection to other languages reflects the isolation of the Basque people in their mountainous homeland●This isolation has helped them preserve their language in the face of the wide diffusion of Indo-European languagesIcelandic – ●Related to other languages in the North Germanic group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family●It has changed less than any other language in the Germanic branch●People speak a Germanic language because their ancestors migrated to the island from the east, in this case from Norway●After centuries of interaction with other Scandinavians, Norwegian and other north Germanic languages had adopted new words and pronunciation, whereas the isolated people of Iceland had less opportunity to learn new words and no reason to change their languageNative American – ●Only 92 survive today●14 of them face immediate extinction because fewer than 100 speakers remain●Of Peru’s surviving indigenous languages, only Cusco, a Quechuan language, is currently used by more than 1 million people●74 languages based in the US are now extinct, which are languages spoken by groups in the westHebrew – ●It is a rare case of an extinct language that has been revived
The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Name___William Gehrke_____________Chapter 5: Languages●Most of the Jewish Bible was written in Hebrew●It is diminished in use in the fourth century B.C. and was thereafter retained only for Jewish religious services●When Israel was established as an independent country in 19488, Hebrew became one of the new country’s two official languages, along with Arabic●
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- Tricia Hayes
- The Bible, Indo-European languages, Germanic languages